VINEGAR

King’s American Dispensatory.

by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D., and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D.:

Acetum.—Vinegar.

SYNONYMS: Acetum britannicum (British malt vinegar), Acetum gallicum (French wine vinegar), Acetum destillatum (distilled vinegar), Acetum crudum.

Source and History.—Vinegar is a dilute acetic acid, combined with foreign coloring and flavoring substances, and is prepared by the acetification of cider, malt, or wine, and by the oxidation of alcohol. It is the result of a fermentative process, known as the acetous, by which certain liquids or infusions undergo a change, causing them to have a manifest sourness to the taste. Those fluids which are capable of acetous fermentation possess more or less saccharine matter, as fruits, grain, etc. In order to effect an acetous fermentation a temperature is required, ranging from 21¡Æ to 35¡Æ C. (70¡Æ to 95¡Æ F.), which is accompanied with the formation of a remarkable vegetable, of a fungous and microscopic character, consisting of the mycelium of Penicillium glaucum, vegetating actively, and increasing by crops of conidia or gemmae. By some this vinegar-plant has been named Torula aceti. During this process the alcohol of the previous vinous fermentation disappears, and its place is occupied by vinegar. According to Pasteur, this microscopic vegetation is the Mycoderma aceti (Ulvina aceti, Kützing), and that it is this agent and not the atmospheric oxidation that gives rise to the process of acetification.

Preparation and Description.—Vinegar is prepared from many substances. In France red wines are principally employed; in Britain it is made from different kinds of malt liquor, cider, saccharine fluids, etc.; and in the United States from cider and whiskey chiefly. The Germans have a quick method of making vinegar, by mixing certain proportions of alcohol, water, and honey, extract of malt or ferment, and which, by a certain process is exposed to the atmosphere by distributing it over beech-wood shavings in a large vat, that it may have an extensive surface for oxidation, and is thereby converted into vinegar in from 24 to 36 hours. Vinegar is likewise made by several other processes, some of which require a comparatively short time for its formation. The surface of vinegar is frequently covered by moldiness (Mucor mucedo); a small fly (Musca cellaris) is apt to infest it; microscopic animals, called vinegar eels (Anguillula aceti) are common to vinegar containing mucilage and no sulphuric acid; and, on long standing, or when kept in open vessels, a gelatinous, vegetable substance, called the “mother of vinegar” (Mycoderma cerevisiae), is formed at the expense of the acid, rendering the vinegar turbid and weaker. These matters may be removed by boiling the vinegar, and then filtering it. Good vinegar has a peculiar and grateful odor, and an agreeable sour taste. Its color depends somewhat on its mode of manufacture; when prepared from malt liquors it is yellowish-red; when from wine it is pale or deep-red, depending upon the white or red wine from which it is made; and when from cider it is pale-yellow. The high-colored vinegars may be rendered colorless, by filtration through charcoal, or by distillation in a glass retort. Adulterations and their Detection.—Crude vinegar contains a small amount of sulphates and chlorides. Consequently barium chloride, which precipitates the sulphates, is not a good testing reagent to detect free sulphuric acid in vinegar, but upon boiling the latter with calcium chloride a precipitate will show the presence of free acid, but not sulphates, in small amounts. When vinegar is free from sulphuric acid, acetate of lead has no action upon it. Copper may be detected by the addition of ammonia in excess, which renders the vinegar blue, nor should metallic copper be deposited on a clean, bright piece of iron immersed in it. Vinegar containing lead gives a yellow precipitate of iodide of lead, when iodide of potassium is added to it; when it is free from lead and copper, hydrogen sulphide causes no precipitate. When the mineral acids are present they may be detected, according to Chiappe, by producing a deep-blue coloration, with an aqueous or alcoholic solution of Paris violet (methyl-anilin-violet).

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.—Vinegar forms an agreeable cooling drink in fevers, especially when the tongue is red and coated dark or brown; it diminishes inordinate vascular action, allays thirst, neutralizes excess of alkali, and increases the urinary discharge. In typhus, scurvy, and putrid diseases it acts as an antiseptic. In urinary affections, attended with a white sediment consisting mainly of phosphate of calcium and ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate, it has been

recommended. In dysentery and scarlatina, vinegar, saturated with common house-salt, has been very beneficial. A large tablespoonful of the mixture must be added to 4 of hot water, of which a tablespoonful is to be taken, as hot as may be, every 2 or 3 minutes, till the whole is consumed. A similar preparation proved very effectual in the treatment of Asiatic cholera in Cincinnati during 1849-50, and has likewise been found beneficial as a local application in external

inflammations, contusions, severe injuries to joints, swellings, etc. The vapor of vinegar, inspired with that from hot water from a proper inhaler, is of decided service in most varieties of laryngeal inflammation, tonsillitis, hoarseness, putrid sore throat, diphtheria, relaxed sore throat, and ulceration of the fauces; this inhalation will also be found of great utility in dryness and irritation of the pulmonary tubes during measles and other exanthematous diseases. Diluted, it is a favorite domestic remedy for fumigating the apartments of those ill of contagious diseases; it does not destroy the infection, but renders the atmosphere less disagreeable. Vinegar has been used as a gargle in the same affections of the throat and fauces. It has also been applied locally in some cases of ophthalmia, in epistaxis, several cutaneous diseases, and diluted with water has been used as an injection into the rectum in hemorrhoidal affections, and into the uterus in cases of uterine hemorrhage. Injected into the rectum it destroys ascarides, and as a lotion is said to be fatal to pediculi. Large doses of vinegar induce diarrhoea and impair digestion; small doses, however, favor digestion by stimulating the gastric and salivary secretions and aid in softening otherwise indigestible food. Vinegar is one of the best antidotes to poisoning with the caustic alkalies, as it is always at hand. It is also valuable, in weak dilution, to assist in removing particles of lime from the eye. It forms a valuable adjuvant to cooling lotions. The dose internally is from 1 to 4 fluid drachms; as an injection, 1 or 2 fluid ounces, diluted with twice or thrice its bulk of water (see Acetum Destillatum). Specific Indications and Uses.—The deep-red tongue, with dark or brown coating.

Vinegar Preparations.—ACETUM DESTILLATUM, Distilled vinegar, Acetum purum.

Preparation and Description.—Take of vinegar 8 parts, place in a glass or silver retort, and distill over into a receiver of similar material 7 parts. Dilute the product, if necessary, with distilled water, till the specific gravity is 1.006.

Distilled vinegar is recommended to be prepared from wine vinegar, chiefly on account of its aroma; and it should be prepared in glass or silver vessels, as lead or copper ones are extremely dangerous from the poisonous salts liable to be formed, viz.: the acetate of lead or copper. It is a clear liquid, occasionally with a yellowish tint, and differs from dilute acetic acid in containing a small proportion of alcohol, acetic ether, and mucilage. Excess of alkali added to it, and the solution heated, gives a brown color to the liquor, with a dark precipitate, which is supposed to be the decomposed mucilage. When of good quality distilled vinegar is quite colorless, of a pure acetous odor, frequently somewhat ethereal, but entirely unmixed with empyreuma or other disagreeable taint, and is wholly evaporated by beat. It is rendered unfit for pharmaceutical purposes by the presence of metals or mineral acids. Distilled vinegar is used for the same purposes as above, and is the solvent to be employed in making the various medicated vinegars of opium, squill, colchicum, etc. Care must be taken, when using vinegar medicinally, not to obtain the spurious and adulterated articles, containing Sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, copper, lead, etc. One part of acetic acid to 5 of distilled water forms a very good vinegar for culinary and medicinal purposes.

ACETUM AROMATICUM, Aromatic vinegar.—Several aromatic vinegars have appeared in various pharmacopoeias, some directing the use of oils to give the aromatic qualities, as in the formula of the German Pharmacopoeia, and others directing the tinctures of the aromatic herbs, as in the French Codex. The following formula corresponds to that of the German Pharmacopoeia: Take 1 part each of the essential oils of cinnamon (Cassia), juniper, rosemary, peppermint, and lavender; 2 parts each of oils of cloves and lemon; 450 parts of alcohol; 650 parts of acetic acid, and 1900 parts of water. An alcoholic solution of the oils is first prepared, the acid, and afterward the water, added, and the whole allowed to stand (with frequent shaking) 8 days, after which it is filtered. This gives a colorless, clear preparation, which will mix, without turbidity, with any amount of water. It has an acetous, aromatic odor. The National Formulary gives the following: ACETUM AROMATICUM (N. F.), Aromatic vinegar.—Formulary number, 1: “Oil of lavender, 1/2 cubic centimeter (0,5 Cc.) [8]; oil of rosemary, 1/2 cubic centimeter (0.5 Cc.) [8]; oil of juniper, 1/2 cubic centimeter (0.5 Cc.) [8]; oil of peppermint, 1/2 cubic centimeter (0.5 Cc.) [8], oil of cinnamon (Cassia), 1/2 cubic centimeter (0.5 Cc.) [8]; oil of lemon, 1 cubic centimeter (1 Cc.) [16]; oil of cloves, 1 cubic centimeter (1 Cc.) [16]; alcohol, 175 cubic centimeters (175 Cc.) [5 fl, 440]; acetic acid (U. S. P.), 175 cubic centimeters (175 Cc.) [5 fl, 440]; water, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [ 33 fl, 391]. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, add the acetic acid, and lastly, enough water to make one thousand (1000) cubic centimeters [33 fl, 391]. Warm the turbid mixture, during several hours, at a temperature not exceeding 70¡Æ C. (158¡Æ F.), taking care that it shall not suffer loss by evaporation. Then set it aside for a few days, occasionally agitating, and filter”—(Nat. Form ACETUM ANTISEPTICUM, Antiseptic vinegar.—The French Codex directs an antiseptic vinegar prepared as follows: Take 15 parts each of Roman wormwood, rosemary, peppermint, sage, rue, lavender, and absinth; 2 parts each of nutmeg, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, and calamus; 1000 parts of vinegar. Macerate the whole 10 days, and after expressing, add 4 parts of camphor dissolved in 15 parts of glacial acetic acid. Filter.

  END

ANTI ESTROGEN SOLUTIONS

Anti Estrogenic Antidotes

Because of the overloading of the endocrine and lymphatic system of estrogen three has been a number of reproductive cancers occurring at a higher then normal rate…..if you look up the stats this didn’t happen til the 60’s when cancers of all types started to become more apparent in the USA and Canada…. What changed? The exposure to pesticides had definitely increased, the exposure to toxic pollutants had definitely increased, the removal of foods from the diet which were maligned to be a problem but in fact were not, and new food and dietary guidelines were introduced that were in fact cancer causing, such as soy and margarine, food additives and chemical preservatives, plastics that contained foods and detergents which are xeno-estrogenic characteristics. This means these are synthetic estrogens that will in fact react the same way as plant estrogens but in a higher concentrated levels that will bind to what are known as receptor sites ….these are areas of the body that are triggered by hormones and enzymes which cause a chemical reaction or trigger a signal in the body to perform whatever function that is required. These estrogens coming from with out, are extremely dangerous because of the way they accumulate in the body, and the reaction they cause in the body. In the case of estrogen it will lead to cancer, there are over 50 years of research an data to validate this, and to this day the end result has been the same since we have introduced highly estrogenic foods into the diet, males are becoming more mentally and physically dysfunctional, and women are breaking down more rapidly then there predecessors did. By being exposed to dish soap, latex, fuel oils, carpeting, clothing , fabric softeners, clothing made with synthethics, exhaust fumes from all petro products, including the Idea of biodiesel or bio fuels, this to will exacerbrate a bad condition already existing, and will compound the effect that much more…

So how do we heal this condition? How do we reverse the effect? Can we reverse the effect ?…there are herbs, supplements, and vitamins that actually regulate estrogen and remove the excess out of the body, via liver. And through other means of expulsion from the body. There are foods we can eat as well as foods to avoid that will assist us in the regulating of the overloading of the hormones in our system. I will give a list of foods herbs and supplements that will assist in this endeavor to keep us hormonally balanced :….Some of these will be used as a tea, others will be consumed and others used as a supplement….and in some cases used together to remove whatever is afflicting us hormonally….

Vitamins:

Zinc

Iodine

Selenium

Magnesium

Sulfur

Herbs that can assist in the removal of estrogen from the body

Watercress

Turmeric

Garlic

Onion

Shallots

Parsely

Mint

Celery Root

Rosemary

Siberian Ginseng

Gota Kola

Thyme

Milk Thistle

Dandelion

Lady’s Thistle

Summer and Winter Savoury

Ginger and Galangal

Balm of Gilead ( balsam poplar )

Perilla

Olive Leaf

Oregano

Supplements that will remove estrogen or block it’s effect

NAC

L Cysteine

Methionine

Taurine

Foods that can remove or block estrogen:

Nuts

Seeds

Omega 9 oils

Avocado

Rice Bran Oil

Wheat Germ Oil

Papaya

Pineapple

Berries

Citrus fruits ( Bioflavonoids )

Oats and Barley ( Whole )

Broccoli and Broccoli Sprouts

Onion Sprouts

Cabbage

Cauliflower

Kohl Rabi

Kale

Parsley

Celery Root

Grass fed Animals ( grain fed will encourage hormone imbalancing due to the excess of omega 6 in the fat rather then 3 ( grass fed cows have 15 times more omega 3 then fish )

Ocean caught fish ( make sure you increase garlic or sulfur based supplement with Vitamin C to offset any potential mercury or lead poisoning of the fish.

Ground flax seed ( due to the fibre content of the lignans which will bind to the estrogens ) Make sure you grind it fresh not store bought

Herbal Teas

Any tea that will support the liver and the endocrine system should be used to assist in the removal of any unwanted toxin or increase the antioxidant levels so that the body is able to be more efficient in the removing of unwanted pathogens or hormones

Schizandra berry

Fo Ti Eng

Rehmannia Root

Jiagolan

Milk thistle

Nettle

Dandelion

Burdock

Sarsparilla

Perilla

Parsley

White Pine

Birch

Siberian ginseng

Make sure all teas are drunk without any processed sugar or artificial sweetners…Use Xylitol from birch trees or Unpasteurized honey

®®RAW MILK ( not pasteurized ) due to the CLA and Vitamin D content

®®Grass fed Cow’s Butter

®®Seed and Nut Milk

®®Almonds ( due to the phosphorous in it to assist the liver in detoxing the estrogens out)

®®Walnuts ( omega 3 which block estrogen conversion of omega 6 )

®®Pumpkin Seed ( due to the zinc content in regulating hormones )

Modulation of aromatase activity by diet polyphenolic compounds.

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 May 17;54(10):3535-40

Authors: Monteiro R, Azevedo I, Calhau C

Estrogens are involved in physiological actions related to reproduction, body fat distribution, and maintenance of bone mass and are also related to the pathogenesis of estrogen-dependent cancers. The aim of this work was to study the effect of polyphenols on estrogen synthesis. The effect of polyphenols and polyphenolic-rich beverages on aromatase activity was tested in JAR cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line) through the tritiated water release assay. Some of the tested polyphenols inhibited estrogen production, chrysin being the most potent. Additionally, we observed that red wine, alcohol-free red wine, green tea, and black tea (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. No effect on aromatase expression, as assessed by western blotting and RT-PCR, has been detected after 24 h of treatment with any of the flavonoids under study. In conclusion, polyphenols are able to modulate aromatase activity and, consequently, estrogen synthesis. The knowledge of such interference may help to clarify some of the biological properties attributed to polyphenols and may be useful in prevention/treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders.

PMID: 19127721 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Anti Aromatasing Plants and Herbs

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical OLEANOLIC-ACID

Achyranthes aspera BLUME — Chaff Flower; found in Plant

Achyranthes bidentata BLUME — Chaff Flower; found in Fruit

Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE — Chocolate Vine; found in Stem

Allium cepa L. — Onion, Shallot; found in Bulb

Allium sativum var. sativumL. — Garlic; found in Plant

Apocynum cannabinum L. — Bitterroot, Spreading Dogbane; found in Root

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) SPRENGEL — Bearberry, Uva Ursi; found in Plant

Calendula officinalis L. — Calendula, Pot-Marigold; found in Flower

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DON — Madagascar Periwinkle, Rosy Periwinkle; found in Plant

Centaurium erythraea RAFN. — Centaury; found in Plant

Chenopodium album L. — Lambsquarter; found in Plant

Citrullus colocynthis — Colocynth; found in Plant

Cnicus benedictus L. — Blessed Thistle; found in Plant

Cornus officinalis SIEB.& ZUCC. — Chinese Dogwood; found in Seed

Cyperus rotundus L. — Nutsedge; found in Tuber

Daemonorops draco BL. — Dragon’s Blood; found in Fruit

Elaeagnus pungens THUNB. — Thorny Silver Berry; found in Leaf

Eleutherococcus senticosus (RUPR.& MAXIM.) MAXIM. — Ci wu jia (Pinyin), Eleuthero Ginseng, Siberian Ginseng, Spiny Ginseng, Wu jia; found in Root

Eriobotrya japonica (THUNB.) LINDL. — Loquat; found in Leaf

Forsythia suspensa VAHL — Lian-Jiao, Lien-Chiao; found in Fruit

Glechoma hederacea L. — Alehoof; found in Plant

Harpagophytum procumbens (BURCH.) DC. EX MEISN. — Devil’s Claw, Grapple Plant; found in Root

Hedera helix L. — Ivy; found in Leaf

Helianthus annuus L. — Girasol, Sunflower; found in Flower

Humulus lupulus L. — Hops; found in Stem

Hyssopus officinalis L. — Hyssop; found in Plant

Lavandula latifolia MEDIK. — Aspic, Broad-Leaved Lavender, Spike Lavender; found in Leaf

Leonurus cardiaca L. — Motherwort; found in Plant

Ligustrum japonicum THUNB. — Japanese Privet, Ligustri Fructus; found in Fruit

Ligustrum lucidum W. T. AITON — Chinese Privet, Glossy Privet, Ligustri Fructus, Privet, White Waxtree; found in Fruit

Liquidambar orientalis MILLER — Oriental Storax, Oriental Styrax; found in Resin, Exudate, Sap

Liquidambar styraciflua L. — American Styrax, Sweetgum; found in Resin, Exudate, Sap

Luffa aegyptiaca MILLER — Luffa, Smooth Loofah, Vegetable Sponge; found in Seed

Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. — Cajeput; found in Plant

Melissa officinalis L. — Balm, Bee Balm, Lemonbalm, Melissa; found in Shoot

Mentha spicata L. — Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint; found in Leaf

Mentha x rotundifolia(L.) HUDSON — Applemint; found in Tissue Culture

Myristica fragrans HOUTT. — Mace, Muskatnussbaum (Ger.), Nutmeg, nogal moscado (Sp.), nuez moscada (Sp.); found in Seed

Myroxylon balsamum (L.) HARMS — Peru Balsam, Tolu Balsam; found in Plant

Nerium oleander L. — Oleander; found in Plant

Ocimum basilicum L. — Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Flower

Ocimum suave WILLD. — Kenyan Tree Basil; found in Leaf

Olea europaea subsp. europaea— Olive; found in Petiole

Origanum majorana L. — Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram; found in Plant

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER — Chinese Ginseng, Ginseng, Korean Ginseng, Oriental Ginseng; found in Root

Panax japonicus C.A.MEYER — Japanese Ginseng; found in Rhizome

Panax quinquefoliusL. — American Ginseng, Ginseng; found in Plant

Phytolacca americana L. — Pokeweed; found in Root

Plantago major L. — Common Plantain; found in Leaf

Plectranthus amboinicus (LOUR.) SPRENGEL — Amboini Coleus, Country Borage, Cuban Oregano, French Thyme, Indian Borage, Mexican Mint, Soup Mint, Spanish Thyme; found in Plant

Prunella vulgaris L. — Heal-All, Self-Heal; found in Plant

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Fruit

Psidium guajava L. — Guava; found in Leaf

Quisqualis indica L. — Rangoon Creeper; found in Fruit

Rosmarinus officinalis L. — Rosemary; found in Plant, Shoot

Salvia officinalis L. — Sage; found in Leaf, Stem

Salvia sclarea L. — Clary Sage; found in Plant

Salvia triloba L. — Greek Sage; found in Plant

Sambucus nigra L. — Black Elder, Elder, European Alder, European Elder, European Elderberry; found in Bark, Leaf

Satureja hortensis L. — Summer Savory; found in Plant

Satureja montana L. — Savory, Winter Savory; found in Plant

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERR. & L. M. PERRY — Clove, Clovetree; found in Flower

Thymus serpyllum L. — Creeping Thyme; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Uncaria tomentosa DC — Cat’s Claw, Garabato Amarillo, Una de Gato; found in Plant

Vaccinium corymbosum L. — Blueberry; found in Plant

Vaccinium myrtillus L. — Bilberry, Dwarf Bilberry, Whortleberry; found in Leaf

Viburnum prunifolium L. — Black Haw; found in Bark

Viscum album L. — European Mistletoe; found in Resin, Exudate, Sap

Vitis vinifera L. — European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Parra (Sp.), Vid (Sp.), Vigne Vinifere (Fr.), Weinrebe (Ger.), Wine Grape; found in Leaf Wax

Zizyphus jujuba MILL. — Da-Zao, Jujube, Ta-Tsao; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical PINOSTROBIN

Pinus strobus L. — Eastern White Pine, White Pine; found in Wood

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical URSOLIC-ACID

Agrimonia eupatoria L. — Agrimony, Sticklewort; found in Plant

Arbutus unedo L. — Arbutus, Strawberry Tree; found in Leaf

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) SPRENGEL — Bearberry, Uva Ursi; found in Leaf

Artocarpus heterophyllusLAM. — Jackfruit; found in Root

Catalpa bignonioidesWALT. — Indian bean; found in Leaf

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DON — Madagascar Periwinkle, Rosy Periwinkle; found in Leaf

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) NUTT. — King’s Cure, Pipsissewa; found in Plant

Cornus florida L. — American Dogwood; found in Plant

Cornus officinalis SIEB.& ZUCC. — Chinese Dogwood; found in Fruit, Seed

Crataegus cuneata SIEB.& ZUCC. — Hawthorn; found in Fruit

Crataegus laevigata (POIR.) DC — English Hawthorn, Hawthorn, Whitethorn, Woodland Hawthorn; found in Leaf

Cryptostegia grandifolia R. BR. — Rubber Vine; found in Leaf

Elaeagnus pungens THUNB. — Thorny Silver Berry; found in Leaf

Eriobotrya japonica (THUNB.) LINDL. — Loquat; found in Leaf

Eucalyptus citriodora HOOK. — Citron-Scented Gum, Lemon Eucalyptus, Lemon-Scented Gum, Spotted Gum; found in Plant

Forsythia suspensa VAHL — Lian-Jiao, Lien-Chiao; found in Fruit

Gaultheria fragrantissimaWALL. — Indian Wintergreen; found in Leaf

Glechoma hederacea L. — Alehoof; found in Plant

Helichrysum angustifoliumDC. — Everlasting, Immortelle; found in Flower, Stem

Humulus lupulus L. — Hops; found in Stem

Hyssopus officinalis L. — Hyssop; found in Plant

Ilex paraguariensisST. HIL. — Mate, Paraguay Tea, South American Holly; found in Leaf

Lavandula angustifoliaMILLER — English Lavender; found in Leaf

Lavandula latifolia MEDIK. — Aspic, Broad-Leaved Lavender, Spike Lavender; found in Leaf

Leonurus cardiaca L. — Motherwort; found in Plant

Ligustrum japonicum THUNB. — Japanese Privet, Ligustri Fructus; found in Fruit

Limonia acidissima L. — Elephant Apple, Manzana De Elefante, Wood-Apple; found in Wood

Lycopus europeus L. — European Bugle; found in Plant

Malus domestica BORKH. — Apple; found in Fruit Epidermis

Marrubium vulgare L. — Horehound, White Horehound; found in Plant

Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. — Cajeput; found in Plant

Melissa officinalis L. — Balm, Bee Balm, Lemonbalm, Melissa; found in Plant

Mentha spicata L. — Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint; found in Leaf

Mentha x rotundifolia(L.) HUDSON — Applemint; found in Tissue Culture

Monarda didyma L. — Beebalm, Oswego Tea; found in Leaf

Nerium oleander L. — Oleander; found in Plant

Ocimum basilicum L. — Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Flower, Leaf , Sprout Seedling , Stem

Ocimum canum SIMS — Hoary Basil; found in Shoot

Origanum majorana L. — Marjoram, Sweet Marjoram; found in Plant

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Plantago asiatica L. — Asian Plantain; found in Plant

Plantago major L. — Common Plantain; found in Plant

Plectranthus amboinicus (LOUR.) SPRENGEL — Amboini Coleus, Country Borage, Cuban Oregano, French Thyme, Indian Borage, Mexican Mint, Soup Mint, Spanish Thyme; found in Plant

Prunella vulgaris L. — Heal-All, Self-Heal; found in Plant

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Fruit

Prunus laurocerasusL. — Cherry Laurel; found in Leaf

Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH — Peach; found in Leaf

Prunus serotina subsp. serotina— Black Cherry, Wild Cherry; found in Leaf

Psidium guajava L. — Guava; found in Leaf

Punica granatum L. — Granado (Sp.), Granatapfelbaum (Ger.), Granatapfelstrauch (Ger.), Grenadier (Fr.), Mangrano (Sp.), Pomegranate, Romanzeiro (Port.), Zakuro (Jap.); found in Fruit, Leaf

Pyrus communis L. — Pear; found in Fruit

Rhododendron dauricum L. — Chinese Alpenrose; found in Plant

Rhododendron ferrugineum L. — Rusty-Leaved Alpenrose; found in Leaf

Rhododendron ponticum L. — Pontic Alpenrose; found in Leaf

Rosmarinus officinalis L. — Rosemary; found in Plant, Shoot

Rubus fruticosus — Blackberry; found in Plant

Salvia officinalis L. — Sage; found in Leaf, Stem

Salvia sclarea L. — Clary Sage; found in Plant

Salvia triloba L. — Greek Sage; found in Plant

Sambucus nigra L. — Black Elder, Elder, European Alder, European Elder, European Elderberry; found in Bark, Flower , Leaf

Sanguisorba officinalis L. — Greater Burnet; found in Plant

Satureja hortensis L. — Summer Savory; found in Leaf, Stem

Satureja montana L. — Savory, Winter Savory; found in Plant

Sorbus aucubaria L. — Rowan Berry; found in Fruit

Syringa vulgaris L. — Lilac; found in Leaf

Teucrium chamaedrys L. — Wall Germander; found in Plant

Teucrium polium L. — Golden Germander; found in Plant

Teucrium scordium — Water Germander; found in Plant

Teucrium scorodonia L. — Germander, Wood Germander; found in Leaf

Thevetia peruviana (PERS.) K. SCHUM. — Adelfa Amarilla (Sp.), Cabalonga (Sp.), Chirca (Sp.), Loandro-Amarelo (Port.), Luckynut, Oleandre Jaune (Fr.), Peruvian Yellow Oleander, Thevetie (Ger.), Yellow Oleander; found in Leaf

Thymus serpyllum L. — Creeping Thyme; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Uncaria tomentosa DC — Cat’s Claw, Garabato Amarillo, Una de Gato; found in Plant

Vaccinium corymbosum L. — Blueberry; found in Plant

Vaccinium myrtillus L. — Bilberry, Dwarf Bilberry, Whortleberry; found in Fruit, Leaf

Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minusLODD. — Cowberry, Lingen, Lingonberry; found in Fruit

Verbena officinalis L. — Vervain; found in Plant

Viburnum opulus subsp. var. opulus— Crampbark, European Cranberry Bush, Guelder Rose, Snowballbush; found in Fruit

Viburnum prunifolium L. — Black Haw; found in Bark

Vinca minor L. — Periwinkle, Running-Myrtle; found in Leaf, Plant

Zizyphus jujuba MILL. — Da-Zao, Jujube, Ta-Tsao; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical SECOISOLARICIRESINOL

Linum usitatissimumL. — Flax, Linseed; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical NARINGENIN

Anacardium occidentale L. — Cashew; found in Seed

Artemisia dracunculus L. — Tarragon; found in Shoot

Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE — Tea; found in Shoot

Centaurea calcitrapa L. — Star-Thistle; found in Plant

Citrus aurantium L. — Bitter Orange, Petitgrain; found in Plant

Citrus paradisi MacFAD. — Grapefruit; found in Fruit

Citrus sinensis (L.) OSBECK — Orange; found in Pericarp

Equisetum arvense L. — Field Horsetail, Horsetail; found in Plant

Glycine max (L.) MERR. — Soybean; found in Leaf

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. — Commom Licorice, Licorice, Licorice-Root, Smooth Licorice; found in Shoot

Lippia graveolens HBK — Oregano; found in Root, Shoot

Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER — Tomato; found in Fruit

Monarda didyma L. — Beebalm, Oswego Tea; found in Plant

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Petroselinum crispum (MILLER) NYMAN EX A. W. HILLL — Parsley; found in Plant

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Fruit

Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH — Peach; found in Plant

Silybum marianum (L.) GAERTN. — Lady’s Thistle, Milk Thistle; found in Fruit

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Vigna radiata (L.) WILCZEK — Green Gram, Mungbean; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical LUTEOLIN

Achillea millefolium L. — Milfoil, Yarrow; found in Plant

Alisma plantago-aquaticaL. — Mud Plantain, Tse-Hsieh, Water Plantain, Ze-Xie; found in Plant

Ammi majus L. — Bishop’s Weed; found in Plant

Anisochilus carnosus WALL. — Panjiri-ka Pat; found in Plant

Apium graveolens L. — Celery; found in Leaf

Arnica montana L. — Leopard’s-Bane, Mountain Tobacco; found in Flower

Artemisia dracunculus L. — Tarragon; found in Plant

Baptisia tinctoria R. BR. — Wild Indigo; found in Plant

Chamaemelum nobile (L.) ALL. — Garden Camomile, Perennial Camomile, Roman Camomile; found in Plant

Citrus limon (L.) BURMAN f. — Lemon; found in Flower

Cnicus benedictus L. — Blessed Thistle; found in Plant

Cuminum cyminum L. — Cumin; found in Fruit

Cuscuta reflexa ROXB. — Amarbel; found in Plant

Cymbopogon citratus (DC. ex NEES) STAPF — Lemongrass, West Indian Lemongrass; found in Leaf

Cytisus scoparius (L.) LINK. — Scotch Broom; found in Plant

Daphne genkwa SIEB & ZUCC. — Yuan Hua; found in Flower

Daucus carota L. — Carrot; found in Plant

Digitalis lanata EHRH. — Grecian Foxglove; found in Leaf

Digitalis purpurea L. — Purple Foxglove; found in Leaf

Echinacea spp — Coneflower, Echinacea; found in Leaf

Equisetum arvense L. — Field Horsetail, Horsetail; found in Plant

Ginkgo biloba L. — Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree; found in Leaf

Glechoma hederacea L. — Alehoof; found in Plant

Harpagophytum procumbens (BURCH.) DC. EX MEISN. — Devil’s Claw, Grapple Plant; found in Root

Hydnocarpus wightiana BLUME — Hindi Chaulmoogra; found in Seed

Juncus effusus L. — Rush; found in Plant

Lactuca sativa L. — Lettuce; found in Plant

Lavandula angustifoliaMILLER — English Lavender; found in Plant

Lawsonia inermis L. — Henna, Jamaica-Mignonette, Mignonette, Mignonette Tree; found in Plant

Linum usitatissimumL. — Flax, Linseed; found in Plant

Lonicera japonica THUNB. — Japanese Honeysuckle; found in Flower

Marrubium vulgare L. — Horehound, White Horehound; found in Plant

Matricaria recutita L. — Annual Camomile, German Camomile, Wild Camomile; found in Plant

Mentha arvensis var. piperascensMALINV. EX L. H. BAILEY — Cornmint, Field Mint, Japanese Mint; found in Shoot

Mentha spicata L. — Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint; found in Leaf

Mentha x piperita subsp. nothosubsp. piperita— Peppermint; found in Leaf

Mentha x rotundifolia(L.) HUDSON — Applemint; found in Shoot

Nelumbo nucifera L. — Water Lotus; found in Flower

Ocimum basilicum L. — Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Plant

Olea europaea subsp. europaea— Olive; found in Leaf

Opuntia ficus-indica(L.) MILL. — Indian Fig, Nopal, Nopalito, Prickly Pear; found in Flower

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Passiflora incarnata L. — Manzana de Mayo, Mayapple, Passionflower; found in Plant

Perilla frutescens (L.) BRITTON — Perilla; found in Leaf, Seed

Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. var. vulgaris— Black Bean, Dwarf Bean, Field Bean, Flageolet Bean, French Bean, Garden Bean, Green Bean, Haricot, Haricot Bean, Haricot Vert, Kidney Bean, Navy Bean, Pop Bean, Popping Bean, Snap Bean, String Bean, Wax Bean; found in Plant

Physalis alkekingi L. — Bladderherb, Lantern; found in Plant

Plantago major L. — Common Plantain; found in Leaf

Rosmarinus officinalis L. — Rosemary; found in Leaf, Plant

Salvia officinalis L. — Sage; found in Shoot

Santolina chamaecyparissusL. — Lavender Cotton; found in Plant

Scutellaria galericulataL. — Marsh Skullcap; found in Plant

Solanum tuberosum L. — Potato; found in Flower

Teucrium polium L. — Golden Germander; found in Plant

Theobroma cacao L. — Cacao; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Tragopogon porrifolius L. — Salsify; found in Plant

Tridax procumbens L. — Coatbuttons, Mexican daisy; found in Flower

Trigonella foenum-graecumL. — Alholva (Sp.), Bockshornklee (Ger.), Fenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay; found in Seed

Vitis vinifera L. — European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Parra (Sp.), Vid (Sp.), Vigne Vinifere (Fr.), Weinrebe (Ger.), Wine Grape; found in Leaf

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical GALANGIN

Acorus calamus L. — Calamus, Flagroot, Myrtle Flag, Sweet Calamus, Sweetflag, Sweetroot; found in Rhizome

Alpinia galanga (L.) SW. — Greater Galangal, Languas, Siamese Ginger; found in Rhizome

Alpinia officinarum HANCE — Chinese Ginger, Lesser Galangal; found in Rhizome

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. — Commom Licorice, Licorice, Licorice-Root, Smooth Licorice; found in Shoot

Populus tacamahacca MILL. — Balm Of Gilead; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical KAEMPFEROL

Abelmoschus moschatus MEDIK. — Ambrette, Musk Okra, Muskmallow, Tropical Jewel Hibiscus; found in Flower

Acacia catechu (L. f.) WILLD. — Black Cutch, Catechu; found in Plant

Acacia farnesiana (L.) WILLD. — Cassie, Huisache, Opopanax, Popinac, Sweet Acacia; found in Plant

Acacia senegal (L.) WILLD. — Gum Arabic, Gum Arabic Tree, Kher, Senegal Gum, Sudan Gum Arabic; found in Plant

Ageratum conyzoides L. — Mexican ageratum; found in Plant

Allium cepa L. — Onion, Shallot; found in Bulb

Allium sativum var. sativumL. — Garlic; found in Plant

Allium schoenoprasumL. — Chives; found in Leaf

Althaea officinalis L. — Marshmallow, White Mallow; found in Leaf

Ammi visnaga (L.) LAM. — Visnaga; found in Plant

Anethum graveolens L. — Dill, Garden Dill; found in Fruit

Armoracia rusticana GAERTN. ET AL. — Horseradish; found in Leaf

Asparagus officinalis L. — Asparagus; found in Root

Azadirachta indica A. JUSS. — Neem; found in Flower

Berberis vulgaris L. — Barberry; found in Plant

Beta vulgaris subsp. subsp. vulgaris— Beet, Beetroot, Garden Beet, Sugar Beet; found in Plant

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis l. var. botrytisL. — Cauliflower; found in Flower, Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. capitata l. var. capitataL. — Cabbage, Red Cabbage, White Cabbage; found in Leaf

Brassica oleracea var. gongylodesL. — Kohlrabi; found in Shoot

Brassica oleracea var. sabellica l. var. acephalaDC — Curly Kale, Kale, Kitchen Kale, Scotch Kale; found in Leaf

Calendula officinalis L. — Calendula, Pot-Marigold; found in Plant

Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE — Tea; found in Plant

Capsicum frutescens L. — Cayenne, Chili, Hot Pepper, Red Chili, Spur Pepper, Tabasco; found in Anther

Castanea sativa MILLER — European Chestnut; found in Leaf

Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. DON — Madagascar Periwinkle, Rosy Periwinkle; found in Plant

Ceiba pentandra (L.) GAERTN. — Kapok, Silk-Cotton Tree; found in Flower

Centella asiatica (L.) URBAN — Gotu Kola, Pennywort; found in Plant

Chimaphila umbellata (L.) NUTT. — King’s Cure, Pipsissewa; found in Plant

Cichorium intybus L. — Chicory, Succory, Witloof; found in Plant

Cinnamomum camphora (L.) NEES & EBERM. — Camphor, Ho Leaf; found in Plant

Citrus paradisi MacFAD. — Grapefruit; found in Fruit

Cola acuminata (P. BEAUV.) SCHOTT & ENDL. — Abata Cola; found in Plant

Consolida ajacis (L.) SCHUR — Larkspur; found in Flower

Cornus florida L. — American Dogwood; found in Flower

Crocus sativus L. — Saffron; found in Flower

Cucurbita pepo L. — Pumpkin; found in Leaf

Cuscuta reflexa ROXB. — Amarbel; found in Plant

Daucus carota L. — Carrot; found in Seed

Diospyros virginiana L. — American Persimmon; found in Plant

Dodonaea viscosa (L.) JACQ. — Hopwood; found in Plant

Drimys winteri FORSTER& FORSTER f. — Winter’s Bark; found in Leaf

Echinacea spp — Coneflower, Echinacea; found in Leaf

Elaeagnus angustifoliaL. — Russian Olive, Silver Berry; found in Leaf

Equisetum arvense L. — Field Horsetail, Horsetail; found in Plant

Eriobotrya japonica (THUNB.) LINDL. — Loquat; found in Plant

Erythroxylum coca var. coca— Coca; found in Plant

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. — Boneset; found in Plant

Euphorbia hirta L. — Queensland Asthma Herb; found in Leaf

Euphorbia lathyris L. — Caper Spurge, Mole Plant; found in Leaf

Ficus carica L. — Echte Feige (Ger.), Feigenbaum (Ger.), Fico (Ital.), Fig, Figueira (Port.), Figuier Commun (Fr.), Higo (Sp.), Higuera Comun (Sp.); found in Plant

Foeniculum vulgare MILLER — Fennel; found in Plant

Fragaria spp — Strawberry; found in Leaf

Frangula alnus MILLER — Buckthorn; found in Seed

Geranium thunbergii SIEB.& ZUCC — Gennoshiouko, Oriental Geranium; found in Leaf

Ginkgo biloba L. — Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree; found in Leaf

Glycine max (L.) MERR. — Soybean; found in Plant

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. — Commom Licorice, Licorice, Licorice-Root, Smooth Licorice; found in Shoot

Gossypium sp — Cotton; found in Flower

Hamamelis virginiana L. — Witch Hazel; found in Leaf

Harpagophytum procumbens (BURCH.) DC. EX MEISN. — Devil’s Claw, Grapple Plant; found in Root

Hippophae rhamnoides L. — Sallow Thorn, Sea Buckthorn, Yellow Spine; found in Fruit

Humulus lupulus L. — Hops; found in Leaf

Hura crepitans L. — Sandbox Tree; found in Leaf

Hydrangea arborescens L. — Hydrangea, Smooth Hydrangea; found in Root

Isatis tinctoria L. — Dyer’s Woad; found in Plant

Juglans regia L. — English Walnut; found in Leaf

Kalanchoe pinnata (LAM.) PERS. — Air Plant, Siempre Viva; found in Leaf

Kalanchoe spathulata DC. — Beach Bells; found in Leaf

Lactuca sativa L. — Lettuce; found in Plant

Laurus nobilis L. — Bay, Bay Laurel, Bayleaf, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, Sweet Bay; found in Plant

Ligustrum japonicum THUNB. — Japanese Privet, Ligustri Fructus; found in Flower

Lycopersicon esculentum MILLER — Tomato; found in Seed

Magnolia denudata DESR. — Hsin-I, Xin-Yi; found in Plant

Magnolia kobus DC. — Hsin-I, Xin-Yi; found in Plant

Magnolia officinalis REHDER& E. H. WILSON — Chinese Magnolia, Hou Pu, Magnolia-Bark; found in Plant

Mangifera indica L. — Mango; found in Plant

Matricaria recutita L. — Annual Camomile, German Camomile, Wild Camomile; found in Plant

Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L. — Cajeput; found in Plant

Melia azedarach L. — Chinaberry; found in Plant

Moringa oleifera LAM. — Ben Nut, Benzolive Tree, Drumstick Tree, Horseradish Tree, Jacinto (Sp.), Moringa, West Indian Ben; found in Flower

Morus alba L. — Sang-Pai-Pi, White Mulberry; found in Wood

Musa x paradisiacaL. — Banana, Plantain; found in Fruit, Plant

Myristica fragrans HOUTT. — Mace, Muskatnussbaum (Ger.), Nutmeg, nogal moscado (Sp.), nuez moscada (Sp.); found in Plant

Nelumbo nucifera L. — Water Lotus; found in Plant

Nicotiana tabacum L. — Tobacco; found in Leaf

Ocimum basilicum L. — Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Leaf

Oenothera biennis L. — Evening-Primrose; found in Leaf

Olea europaea subsp. europaea— Olive; found in Stem

Opuntia ficus-indica(L.) MILL. — Indian Fig, Nopal, Nopalito, Prickly Pear; found in Flower

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Paeonia lactiflora PALL. — Bai Shao (Chinese), Chih-Shao, Common Garden Peony, Peony, White Peony; found in Leaf

Paeonia moutan — Moutan, Tree Peony; found in Leaf

Paeonia suffruticosaANDREWS — Moutan, Moutan Peony, Tree Peony; found in Leaf

Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER — Chinese Ginseng, Ginseng, Korean Ginseng, Oriental Ginseng; found in Leaf

Panax quinquefoliusL. — American Ginseng, Ginseng; found in Plant

Passiflora incarnata L. — Manzana de Mayo, Mayapple, Passionflower; found in Plant

Pastinaca sativa L. — Parsnip; found in Seed

Petasites japonicus (SIEBOLD& ZUCC.) MAXIM. — Butterbur; found in Plant

Petroselinum crispum (MILLER) NYMAN EX A. W. HILLL — Parsley; found in Plant

Phyllanthus emblica L. — Emblic, Myrobalan; found in Leaf

Physalis peruviana L. — Cape Gooseberry, Ground Cherry; found in Fruit

Pinus mugo TURRA — Dwarf Pine, Swiss Mountain Pine; found in Wood

Pistacia lentiscus L. — Chios Mastictree, Lentisco (Sp.), Mastic, Mastictree, Mastixbaum (Ger.); found in Leaf

Pisum sativum L. — Pea; found in Tissue Culture

Plumeria acutifolia POIR. — Frangipani; found in Flower

Podophyllum hexandrum ROYLE — Himalayan Mayapple; found in Rhizome

Podophyllum peltatum L. — Mayapple; found in Rhizome

Podophyllum pleianthum L. — Chinese Mayapple; found in Rhizome

Polygonum hydropiper L. — Common Smartweed; found in Plant

Polygonum hydropiperoidesL. — Mild Water Pepper; found in Plant

Populus tacamahacca MILL. — Balm Of Gilead; found in Plant

Prunus armeniaca L. — Apricot; found in Leaf

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Plant

Prunus domestica L. — Plum; found in Wood

Prunus dulcis (MILLER) D. A. WEBB — Almond; found in Plant

Prunus laurocerasusL. — Cherry Laurel; found in Plant

Prunus persica (L.) BATSCH — Peach; found in Leaf

Prunus serotina subsp. serotina— Black Cherry, Wild Cherry; found in Plant

Prunus spinosa L. — Blackthorn, Sloe; found in Flower

Psidium cattleianum SABINE — Strawberry Guava; found in Plant

Rhododendron dauricum L. — Chinese Alpenrose; found in Plant

Rhus toxicodendronL. — Poison Ivy; found in Plant

Ribes nigrum L. — Black Currant; found in Fruit

Ricinus communis L. — Castorbean; found in Plant

Robinia pseudoacaciaL. — Black Locust; found in Flower

Rosa damascena MILLER — Damask Rose; found in Plant

Sambucus nigra L. — Black Elder, Elder, European Alder, European Elder, European Elderberry; found in Flower

Sanguisorba minor SCOP. — Small Burnet; found in Plant

Sanguisorba officinalis L. — Greater Burnet; found in Plant

Schinus molle L. — California Peppertree, Mastic-Tree, Peruvian Peppertree; found in Leaf

Schinus terebinthifoliusRADDI — Brazilian Peppertree; found in Leaf

Silybum marianum (L.) GAERTN. — Lady’s Thistle, Milk Thistle; found in Seed

Solanum tuberosum L. — Potato; found in Flower

Sophora japonica L. — Japanese Pagoda Tree; found in Plant

Spinacia oleracea L. — Spinach; found in Plant

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) MERR. & L. M. PERRY — Clove, Clovetree; found in Flower

Tagetes erecta L. — Aztec Marigold, Marigold; found in Leaf

Tagetes patula L. — French Marigold; found in Plant

Terminalia catappa L. — Indian Almond, Malabar Almond, Tropical Almond; found in Leaf

Teucrium polium L. — Golden Germander; found in Plant

Theobroma cacao L. — Cacao; found in Leaf

Thespesia populnea (L.) SOLAND. — Indian tulip tree; found in Flower

Thevetia peruviana (PERS.) K. SCHUM. — Adelfa Amarilla (Sp.), Cabalonga (Sp.), Chirca (Sp.), Loandro-Amarelo (Port.), Luckynut, Oleandre Jaune (Fr.), Peruvian Yellow Oleander, Thevetie (Ger.), Yellow Oleander; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Tribulus terrestris L. — Puncture-vine; found in Flower

Trigonella foenum-graecumL. — Alholva (Sp.), Bockshornklee (Ger.), Fenugreek, Greek Clover, Greek Hay; found in Plant

Tsuga canadensis (L.) CARRIERE — Eastern Hemlock; found in Branches

Vaccinium vitis-idaea var. minusLODD. — Cowberry, Lingen, Lingonberry; found in Fruit

Valeriana officinalis L. — Common Valerian, Garden-Heliotrope, Valerian; found in Plant

Vicia faba L. — Broadbean, Faba Bean, Habas; found in Shoot

Viola odorata L. — Common Violet, Sweet Violet; found in Plant

Vitis vinifera L. — European Grape, Grape, Grapevine, Parra (Sp.), Vid (Sp.), Vigne Vinifere (Fr.), Weinrebe (Ger.), Wine Grape; found in Leaf

Zingiber officinale ROSCOE — Ginger; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical APIGENIN

Achillea millefolium L. — Milfoil, Yarrow; found in Plant

Anisochilus carnosus WALL. — Panjiri-ka Pat; found in Plant

Apium graveolens L. — Celery; found in Plant

Araucaria bidwillii HOOK. — Monkey puzzle; found in Leaf

Artemisia dracunculus L. — Tarragon; found in Plant

Camellia sinensis (L.) KUNTZE — Tea; found in Leaf

Centaurea calcitrapa L. — Star-Thistle; found in Plant

Chamaemelum nobile (L.) ALL. — Garden Camomile, Perennial Camomile, Roman Camomile; found in Plant

Colchicum autumnale L. — Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron; found in Tuber

Conyza canadensis (L.) CRONQ. — Butterweed, Hogweed, Horseweed; found in Plant

Coriandrum sativum L. — Chinese Parsley, Cilantro, Coriander; found in Fruit

Daphne genkwa SIEB & ZUCC. — Yuan Hua; found in Flower

Daucus carota L. — Carrot; found in Fruit

Digitalis purpurea L. — Purple Foxglove; found in Flower

Echinacea spp — Coneflower, Echinacea; found in Leaf

Ginkgo biloba L. — Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree; found in Leaf

Glechoma hederacea L. — Alehoof; found in Plant

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. — Commom Licorice, Licorice, Licorice-Root, Smooth Licorice; found in Root

Hydnocarpus wightiana BLUME — Hindi Chaulmoogra; found in Seed

Jatropha gossypifoliaL. — Spanish Physic Nut; found in Leaf

Linum usitatissimumL. — Flax, Linseed; found in Plant

Lycopodium clavatum L. — Antler Herb, Clubmoss; found in Plant

Marrubium vulgare L. — Horehound, White Horehound; found in Plant

Matricaria recutita L. — Annual Camomile, German Camomile, Wild Camomile; found in Plant

Mentha aquatica L. — Water Mint; found in Plant

Mentha spicata L. — Hortela da Folha Miuda, Spearmint; found in Leaf

Mentha x rotundifolia(L.) HUDSON — Applemint; found in Shoot

Ocimum basilicum L. — Basil, Cuban Basil, Sweet Basil; found in Plant

Olea europaea subsp. europaea— Olive; found in Leaf

Origanum vulgare L. — Common Turkish Oregano, European Oregano, Oregano, Pot Marjoram, Wild Marjoram, Wild Oregano; found in Plant

Passiflora incarnata L. — Manzana de Mayo, Mayapple, Passionflower; found in Plant

Perilla frutescens (L.) BRITTON — Perilla; found in Seed

Petroselinum crispum (MILLER) NYMAN EX A. W. HILLL — Parsley; found in Plant

Phaseolus vulgaris subsp. var. vulgaris— Black Bean, Dwarf Bean, Field Bean, Flageolet Bean, French Bean, Garden Bean, Green Bean, Haricot, Haricot Bean, Haricot Vert, Kidney Bean, Navy Bean, Pop Bean, Popping Bean, Snap Bean, String Bean, Wax Bean; found in Plant

Phoenix dactylifera L. — Date Palm; found in Stem

Plantago major L. — Common Plantain; found in Leaf

Pogostemon cablin (BLANCO) BENTH. — Patchouli; found in Plant

Prosopis juliflora (SW.) DC. — Mesquite; found in Plant

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Plant

Rosmarinus officinalis L. — Rosemary; found in Plant

Salix alba L. — White Willow; found in Bark

Salvia officinalis L. — Sage; found in Plant

Scutellaria galericulataL. — Marsh Skullcap; found in Plant

Silybum marianum (L.) GAERTN. — Lady’s Thistle, Milk Thistle; found in Fruit

Tanacetum vulgare L. — Tansy; found in Plant

Teucrium polium L. — Golden Germander; found in Plant

Thymus serpyllum L. — Creeping Thyme; found in Plant

Thymus vulgaris L. — Common Thyme, Garden Thyme, Thyme; found in Plant

Triticum aestivum L. — Wheat; found in Seed

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical CHRYSIN

Daucus carota L. — Carrot; found in Seed

Pinus strobus L. — Eastern White Pine, White Pine; found in Wood

Populus nigra L. — Black Poplar; found in Plant

Populus tacamahacca MILL. — Balm Of Gilead; found in Plant

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Plant

Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI — Baikal Skullcap, Chinese Skullcap, Huang Qin; found in Root

Scutellaria galericulataL. — Marsh Skullcap; found in Plant

Spartium junceum L. — Genet, Spanish Broom, Weaver’s Broom; found in Plant

Plant parts with Aromatase-inhibitor Activity from the chemical KAEMPFERIDE

Alpinia galanga (L.) SW. — Greater Galangal, Languas, Siamese Ginger; found in Rhizome

Prunus cerasus L. — Sour Cherry; found in Plant

Prunus domestica L. — Plum; found in Wood

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