Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show Notes – Week Ending 14th July 2013

Script of the Show July 13 2013

Topics :

PICA—EATING DISORDER FROM MINERAL DEFICIENCY

Formula-feeding linked to metabolic stress and increased risk of later disease

Zanthoxylum Avicennae-Prickly Ash Leaves or Seeds

Getting Enough Sleep Could Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

Timing of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation May Affect How Bone Adapts to Exercise

Aspirin May Fight Cancer by Slowing DNA Damage

Minerals

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PICA—EATING DISORDER FROM MINERAL DEFICIENCY

A person afflicted with pica has a persistent craving for a substance that is not commonly considered to be food. The substances that are craved and ingested tend to vary with the person’s age. Children with pica may eat glue, animal droppings, sand, insects, leaves, or gravel. Adolescents and adults may consume clay, laundry detergent, or soil.

Although the cravings associated with pica may be related to vitamin or mineral deficiencies, ingesting non-foods can cause serious medical complications such as intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, infections, or lead poisoning

Pica (/ˈpaɪkə/ PY-kə) is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as clay, chalk, dirt, or sand.[1] For these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance. It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development. In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis.[2] Pica has been linked to mental disorders and they often have psychotic comorbidity. Stressors such as maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, poverty, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica.

Signs and symptoms
Chalky stone composed of kaolinite with traces of quartz ingested by a person with pica.

Pica is the consumption of substances with no significant nutritive value such as earth or ice. Subtypes are characterized by the substance eaten for example:

Amylophagia (consumption of starch)

Coprophagy (consumption of feces)

Geophagy (consumption of soil, clay, or chalk)

Hyalophagia (consumption of glass)

Consumption of dust or sand has been reported among iron-deficient patients.

Lithophagia (a subset of geophagia, consumption of pebbles or rocks)[5]

Mucophagia (consumption of mucus)

Odowa (soft stones eaten by pregnant women in Kenya)[6]

Consumption of paint.

Pagophagia (pathological consumption of ice)

Self-cannibalism (rare condition where body parts may be consumed; see also Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)

Trichophagia (consumption of hair or wool)

Urophagia (consumption of urine)

Xylophagia (consumption of wood or paper)

This pattern of eating should last at least one month to fit the diagnosis of pica.

Diagnosis
There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc. Hemoglobin can also be checked to test for anemia. Lead levels should always be checked in children who may have eaten paint or objects covered in lead-paint dust. The health care provider should test for infection if the person has been eating contaminated soil or animal waste

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People who consume animal products usually do not get afflicted with this unless there are other imbalances —this is usually those on vegetarian Diet —will consume things that are unusal—this is again a sign of starvation—lack of nutrients or minerals—so one way to avoid this is to ge adequate nutrients—if not in Diet then in supplementation—or in the consumption of veges or fruits that are fermented to yield a higher mineral and nutrient uptake due to the fibre being broken down releasing the vitality of it’scompliment—People who crave clay usually are trying to fulfill mineral loss—In some cases a Iron ( gotten from meats) and zinc ( animal Protein) restored to the diet will sometimes restore a person to normal—those who consume ice ( pagophagia)—are usually iron deficient—In some cases cannibalism has ben recorded as well or different animals from cats and dogs to mice ( while they are living)—The asian Diet is low in calcium and as a result leach the bones with vinegar to obtain there calcium levels—Magnesium deficiency will result in higher salt use —and Potassium deficiency will be a result of diuretic use –so if you utilize diuretics then make sure you use a dandelion tea it puts potassium back into the system—Minerals Like chromium if there is a deficiency the cravings will be for a pop ( soft drink)and high consumption of grain related carbs—

Cannibalism —would be an extreme case of pica as result of high mineral deficiency

Animals can show signs of this by consuming bones –wood-and cattle will sometimes gnaw on each others horns as well especially if they have a phosphorus need—

History
The term pica originates from the Latin word for magpie, a bird that is reputed for its unusual eating behaviors where they are known to eat almost anything. In 13th century Latin work, pica was referenced by the Greeks and Romans; however, it was not addressed in medical texts until 1563. In the southern United States in the 1800s, geophagia was a common practice among the slave population.[Geophagia is a form of pica in which the person consumes earthly substances such as clay, and is particularly prevalent to augment a mineral-deficient diet. Research on eating disorders in the 16th century to the 20th century suggests that during that time in history, pica was regarded more as a symptom of other disorders rather than its own specific disorder. Even today, what can be classified as pica behavior is a normative practice in some cultures as part of magical beliefs, healing methods, or religious ceremonies.

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Formula-feeding linked to metabolic stress and increased risk of later disease
June 5th, 2013 in Chemistry / Biochemistry

New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life. —New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life. Credit: iStockphoto/Thinkstock—New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life.[F4] The study appears in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research.—Carolyn Slupsky and colleagues explain that past research showed a link between formula-feeding and a higher risk for chronic diseases later in life. Gaps exist, however, in the scientific understanding of the basis for that link. The scientists turned to rhesus monkeys, stand-ins for human infants in such research, that were formula-fed or breast-fed for data to fill those gaps.

Their analysis of the monkeys’ urine, blood and stool samples identified key differences between formula-fed and breast-fed individuals. It also produced hints that reducing the protein content of infant formula might be beneficial in reducing the metabolic stress in formula-fed infants[F5] . “Our findings support the contention that infant feeding practice profoundly influences metabolism in developing infants and may be the link between early feeding and the development of metabolic disease later in life,” the study states.— The article is titled “Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism.”–More information: Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism, J. Proteome Res., Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/pr4001702—- Abstract
Epidemiological research has indicated a relationship between infant formula feeding and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study used an infant rhesus monkey model to compare the comprehensive metabolic implications of formula- and breast-feeding practices using NMR spectroscopy to characterize metabolite fingerprints from urine and serum, in combination with anthropometric measurements, fecal microbial profiling, and cytokine measurements. Here we show that formula-fed infants are larger than their breast-fed counterparts and have a different gut microbiome that includes higher levels of bacteria from the Ruminococcus genus and lower levels of bacteria from the [F6] Lactobacillus genus. In addition, formula-fed infants have higher serum insulin coupled with higher amino acid levels, while amino acid degradation products were higher in breast-fed infants. Increases in serum and urine galactose and urine galactitol were observed in the second month of life in formula-fed infants, along with higher levels of TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and other cytokines and growth factors at week 4. These results demonstrate that metabolic and gut microbiome development of formula-fed infants is different from breast-fed infants and that the choice of infant feeding may hold future health consequences.—-Provided by American Chemical Society

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Zanthoxylum Avicennae-Prickly Ash Leaves or Seeds

[Study on the chemical components, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae].

Zhong Yao Cai. 2012 Aug;35(8):1263-7

Authors: Zhang DS, Zhong QX, Song XM, Liu WJ, Wang J, Zhang QY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and antitumor activity of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae.
METHODS: The essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae was extracted by steam distillation. The components of the essential oil were separated and identified by GC-MS.–RESULTS: 72 components were identified and accounted for 98.15% of the all peak area. The essential oil exhibited strong antitumor activity against K-562 human tumor cell lines with IC50 of 1.76 microg/mL. It also exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against three bacteria.—CONCLUSION: The essential oil of Zanthoxylum avicennae contains various active constituents. This result provides scientific reference for the pharmacological further research of Zanthoxylum avicennae.–PMID: 23320360 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Getting Enough Sleep Could Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
June 18, 2013 — Men who lose sleep during the work week may be able to lower their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by getting more hours of sleep, according to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LA BioMed) research findings presented today at The Endocrine Society’s 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.—The study by Peter Liu, MD, PhD, an LA BioMed lead researcher, found that insulin sensitivity, the body’s ability to clear glucose (blood sugar) from the bloodstream, significantly improved after three nights of “catch-up sleep” on the weekend in men with long-term, weekday sleep restrictions.—“We all know we need to get adequate sleep, but that is often impossible because of work demands and busy lifestyles,” said Dr. Liu. “Our study found extending the hours of sleep can improve the body’s use of insulin, thereby reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult men. –Insulin is a hormone that regulates a person’s blood sugar level. The body of a patient with Type 2 diabetes cannot effectively use the insulin it produces, or it becomes “resistant” to insulin. Retaining the body’s sensitivity to insulin reduces the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, a chronic illness that is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.–Other research had demonstrated the harmful effects of experimental sleep restriction on insulin sensitivity in healthy, normal sleepers. The new study provides information about people who lose sleep during the week — often because of jobs and busy lifestyles — but “catch up” on their sleep on the weekends.-“The good news is that by extending the hours they sleep, adult men — who over a long period of time do not get enough sleep during the working week — can still improve their insulin sensitivity,” Liu said.-Liu and researchers from the University of Sydney in Australia studied 19 non-diabetic men, with an average age of 28.6 years, who for six months or longer (average, 5.1 years) self-reported inadequate sleep during the workweek. On average, the men received only 6.2 hours of sleep each work night. But they regularly caught up on their sleep on the weekends, sleeping an extra 37.4 percent, or 2.3 hours, per night, the authors reported. Their reported sleep times were verified by actigraphy, in which each man wore a small device on his wrist that monitored sleep-wake cycles.—The men spent three nights in a sleep lab on each of two separate weekends. The researchers randomly assigned the men to two of three sleep conditions: (1) 10 hours of sleep, (2) six hours of sleep or (3) 10 hours in bed, in which noises during deep sleep aroused them into shallow sleep without waking them. The six hours of sleep tested persistent sleep restriction.—On the fourth morning, the research staff drew the men’s blood to measure their blood sugar and insulin levels to calculate insulin sensitivity. Each individual had the same food intake during the study visits, so that diet would not influence the results, Liu said.—When the men slept 10 hours a night on each of three nights of catch-up sleep, their insulin sensitivity was much better than when they had persistent sleep restriction, the scientists found. Their insulin resistance test score also improved (decreased) with sleep extension.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (LA BioMed).

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Timing of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation May Affect How Bone Adapts to Exercise
June 18, 2013 — Taking calcium and vitamin D before exercise may influence how bones adapt to exercise, according to a new study. The results will be presented on Tuesday at The Endocrine Society’s 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.—“The timing of calcium supplementation, and not just the amount of supplementation, may be an important factor in how the skeleton adapts to exercise training,” said study lead author Vanessa D. Sherk, PhD, postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. “Further research, however, is needed to determine whether the timing of calcium supplementation affects the skeletal adaptations to exercise training.”—Previous research has shown that a year of intense training is associated with substantial decreases in bone mineral density among competitive road cyclists. Experts believe that this kind of exercise-induced bone loss could be related to the loss of calcium during exercise. As blood calcium levels drop, the parathyroid gland produces excess parathyroid hormone, which can mobilize calcium from the skeleton.—In this study, investigators found that an exercise-induced decrease in blood calcium occurred whether calcium supplements were taken before or after exercising. Pre-exercise supplementation, however, resulted in less of a decrease. Although not statistically significant, parathyroid hormone levels increased slightly less among cyclists who took calcium before exercising.—“These findings are relevant to individuals who engage in vigorous exercise and may lose a substantial amount of calcium through sweating,” Sherk said. “Taking calcium before exercise may help keep blood levels more stable during exercise, compared to taking the supplement afterwards, but we do not yet know the long-term effects of this on bone density.”—The timing of calcium supplementation did not cause a difference in blood levels of a compound that is a biological indicator of bone loss. Both the before- and after-exercise groups exhibited 50-percent increases in the level of this compound, called CTX, for collagen type-1 C-telopeptide.—Study participants included 52 men aged 18 to 45 years. Investigators randomly assigned participants to take 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 1,000 international units of vitamin D either 30 minutes before or one hour after exercise. The exercise comprised a simulated 35-kilometer time trial, and participants wore skin patches to absorb sweat.—Investigators measured blood levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone before and immediately after exercise. They also measured CTX before and 30 minutes after exercise. They used pre- and post-body weight, adjusted for fluid intake, combined with the calcium measured in the sweat from the skin patches, to estimate the amount of calcium lost through the skin during exercise.–The National Institutes of Health and the American College of Sports Medicine funded the study.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Endocrine Society, via Newswise.

Special Note— if anyone was going to try this then you would not use 1000mgs of Calcium but rather 300mmgs with magnesium 150mgs—or you would utilize a creatine with the calcium or even a carbonated calcium —this would insure absorption and usage —there test were flawed because there deliver system would not work due to the overloading of calcium—even comboing it with gelatin as well—then you would be chelating the minerals into the system

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Aspirin May Fight Cancer by Slowing DNA Damage
June 18, 2013 — Aspirin is known to lower risk for some cancers, and a new study led by a UC San Francisco scientist points to a possible explanation, with the discovery that aspirin slows the accumulation of DNA mutations in abnormal cells in at least one pre-cancerous condition.—-“Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are commonly available and cost-effective medications, may exert cancer-preventing effects by lowering mutation rates,” said Carlo Maley, PhD, a member of the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, and an expert on how cancers evolve in the body over time. In the study, published June 13 in the online journal PLOS Genetics, Maley, working with gastroenterologist and geneticist Brian Reid, MD, PhD, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, analyzed biopsy samples from 13 patients with a pre-cancerous condition called Barrett’s esophagus who were tracked for six to 19 years. In an “observational crossover” study design, some patients started out taking daily aspirin for several years, and then stopped, while others started taking aspirin for the first time during observation. The goal was to track the rate of mutations in tissues sampled at different times.—The researchers found that biopsies taken while patients were on an aspirin had on average accumulated new mutations about 10 times more slowly than biopsies obtained during years when patients were not taking aspirin.[F7] —“This is the first study to measure genome-wide mutation rates of a pre-malignant tissue within patients for more than a decade, and the first to evaluate how aspirin affects those rates,” Maley said.—Gender and ethnic distribution of study patients reflected the known demographics of esophageal cancer, which predominantly affects, white, middle-aged and elderly men, he said. Barrett’s esophagus only occasionally progresses to esophageal cancer.—Cancers are known to accumulate mutations over time much more rapidly than normal tissue, and different mutations arise in different groups of cells within the same tumor. The acquisition of key mutations ultimately allows tumor cells to grow out of control, and diversity within a tumor may foster drug resistance, a phenomenon that is a major focus of Maley’s research.—-Maley plans to test a hypothesis that may explain the results — that aspirin’s lowering of mutation rates is due to the drug’s effect of reducing inflammation. Inflammation, a response of the immune system, in recent years has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Maley said that less inflammation may result in less production within pre-cancerous tissue of oxidants known to damage DNA, and may dampen growth-stimulating signaling.—For the duration of the study, the rate of accumulation of mutations measured in the biopsied tissue between time points was slow, even when patients were not taking aspirin, with the exception of one patient. While mutations accumulated at a steady rate, the vast majority of mutations arose before the abnormal tissue was first detected in the clinic, the researchers concluded.—These findings are consistent with the fact that although Barrett’s esophagus is a significant risk factor for esophageal cancer, the vast majority of cases do not progress to cancer, Maley said.

In the one patient who later went on to develop cancer, a population of cellular “clones” with a great number of mutations emerged shortly before he started taking aspirin.—More studies are needed to further explore the link between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mutation rates and the development of invasive cancer, Maley said. He plans to continue studying Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer, and to expand his research to investigate lung cancer.–Rather than aiming to kill the most tumor cells, it may be better to try to halt or slow growth and mutation. Current drug treatments for cancer may in many cases hasten the emergence of cancer that is more difficult to eradicate, according to Maley. The capability to mutate frequently allows tumors to become resistant to drug treatment, he said. A better-adapted mutant can begin to spin off a population of genetic clones that survives and grows, while poorly adapted tumor cells die off.[F8] –Additional authors from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center include Xiaohong Li, PhD, Carissa Sanchez, PhD, Patricia Galipeau, PhD, Thomas Paulson, PhD, Patricia Blount, PhD, Thomas Vaughan, PhD, and Cassandra Sather, PhD. Amitabh Srivastava, MD, and Robert Odze, MD, from Harvard University; Rumen Kostadinov, PhD, from the University of Pennsylvania; and Mary Kuhner, PhD from the University of Washington also were members of the research team and authors of the study.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). The original article was written by Jeffrey Norris. –Journal Reference-Rumen L. Kostadinov, Mary K. Kuhner, Xiaohong Li, Carissa A. Sanchez, Patricia C. Galipeau, Thomas G. Paulson, Cassandra L. Sather, Amitabh Srivastava, Robert D. Odze, Patricia L. Blount, Thomas L. Vaughan, Brian J. Reid, Carlo C. Maley. NSAIDs Modulate Clonal Evolution in Barrett’s Esophagus. PLoS Genetics, 2013; 9 (6): e1003553 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003553

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Minerals—-

% Average Human Body Content

(70 kg person)

Macrominerals (Essential)

Oxygen 65.4 43 kg

Carbon 18.2 12 kg

Hydrogen 9.5 6.3 kg

Nitrogen 3 2 kg

Calcium 1.67 1.1 kg

Phosphorus 1.14 750 grams

Potassium 0.342 225 grams

Sulfur 0.228 150 grams

Chloride 0.152 100 grams

Sodium 0.137 90 grams

Magnesium 0.053 35 grams

Silicon 0.046 30 grams

Microminerals Essentiality

Iron 0.00638 4,200 mg Essential

Fluoride 0.00395 2,600 mg Possibly Essential

Zinc 0.00365 2,400 mg Essential

Rubidium 0.000532 350 mg Probably Essential

Strontium 0.000486 320 mg Possibly Essential

Lead 0.000243 160 mg Toxic

Copper 0.000137 90 mg Essential

Aluminium 0.0000988 65 mg Toxic

Cadmium 0.0000608 40 mg Toxic

Barium 0.0000344 22 mg Possibly Essential

Cobalt 0.0000304 20 mg Essential

Vanadium 0.0000304 20 mg Probably Essential

Iodine 0.0000228 15 mg Essential

Tin 0.0000228 15 mg Possibly Essential

Selenium 0.0000228 15 mg Essential

Arsenic 0.0000228 15 mg Possibly Essential

Manganese 0.0000198 13 mg Essential

Mercury 0.0000190 12.5 mg Toxic

Nickel 0.0000167 11 mg Possibly Essential

Molybdenum 0.0000122 8 mg Essential

Chromium 0.0000091 6 mg Essential

Bismuth 0.0000045 3 mg Probably Toxic

Lithium 0.0000038 2.5 mg Probably Essential

Uranium 90 mcg Toxic

Boron Probably Essential

Germanium Probably Essential

Bromine Possibly Essential

Gold Probably Non Essential

Silver Probably Non Essential

Beryllium Probably Toxic

Antimony Slightly Toxic

Thallium Toxic

Forms of Minerals (Generally)

Mineral Form Mineral Bonded With Comments

Inorganic Salts: Phosphates-Sulfates-Chlorides Important for Electrolyte balance.

Organic Acid Salts-Ascorbates-Acetates-Citrates Natural and more effectively absorbed by the Digestive System than Inorganic Salts

.

Amino Acid Chelates-Amino Acids The best form of absorption of Minerals. Specific Minerals chelate best with specific Amino Acids.

TOP A

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[F1]Methods such as these can be done with almost any fat ( lipid) —and directing them would be what you would sompile in the lipid ( fat)

[F2]Creating a Nanoparticle delivery or liposomal delivery to get things into the cells would be a good concept—with cells salt is one way and mixing a salt with some of these herbals may in fact potentiate them better

[F3]Rhodiola Rosea acts as an Antioxidant and Life Extending even on a restricted diet

[F4]This would have to do with the soy proteins in the formulas which are low on the protein scale for uptake and digestibility—the strain and stress on the digestive system would cause the colon to become corrupt with bad bacteria

[F5]Would be better to give a child a higher profile of protein then the soy and rice in the formulas—they are low on the bv and are excessively difficult t break down even for an adult so the excretment would be a direct result of the proteins passing through thedigestive system and causing damage topancreas-liver and stomach

[F6]Gut flora affects brain functionality in the utmost way—so damaging this will effect emotional and mental up the way

[F7]Make sure if you use an aspirin it does not have yellow coluring agents-synthetic flavours—natural or artificial flavours or polymers—if necessary buy a a supply for animals will be cleaner—and mix this with magnesium and choline as well to insure effect and safety

[F8]This is why today you need more then one remedy and a lifestyle change due to the genetics of cancer and capacity to mutate and adapt—this is how morgellons works as well they are finding more and more that cancer tumours are carrying crystal like components and by offsetting the inflammation this can allow the body to remove the nano particles out through antioxidant free radical
Script of the Show July 13 2013

PICA—EATING DISORDER FROM MINERAL DEFICIENCY

Formula-feeding linked to metabolic stress and increased risk of later disease
Zanthoxylum Avicennae-Prickly Ash Leaves or Seeds

Getting Enough Sleep Could Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
Timing of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation May Affect How Bone Adapts to Exercise
Aspirin May Fight Cancer by Slowing DNA Damage
Minerals

**************************************************************************

PICA—EATING DISORDER FROM MINERAL DEFICIENCY

A person afflicted with pica has a persistent craving for a substance that is not commonly considered to be food. The substances that are craved and ingested tend to vary with the person’s age. Children with pica may eat glue, animal droppings, sand, insects, leaves, or gravel. Adolescents and adults may consume clay, laundry detergent, or soil.

Although the cravings associated with pica may be related to vitamin or mineral deficiencies, ingesting non-foods can cause serious medical complications such as intestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, infections, or lead poisoning

Pica (/ˈpaɪkə/ PY-kə) is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as clay, chalk, dirt, or sand.[1] For these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate. There are different variations of pica, as it can be from a cultural tradition, acquired taste or a neurological mechanism such as an iron deficiency, or chemical imbalance. It can lead to intoxication in children which can result in an impairment in both physical and mental development. In addition, it can also lead to surgical emergencies due to an intestinal obstruction as well as more subtle symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies and parasitosis.[2] Pica has been linked to mental disorders and they often have psychotic comorbidity. Stressors such as maternal deprivation, family issues, parental neglect, pregnancy, poverty, and a disorganized family structure are strongly linked to pica.

Signs and symptoms
Chalky stone composed of kaolinite with traces of quartz ingested by a person with pica.

Pica is the consumption of substances with no significant nutritive value such as earth or ice. Subtypes are characterized by the substance eaten for example:

Amylophagia (consumption of starch)

Coprophagy (consumption of feces)

Geophagy (consumption of soil, clay, or chalk)

Hyalophagia (consumption of glass)

Consumption of dust or sand has been reported among iron-deficient patients.

Lithophagia (a subset of geophagia, consumption of pebbles or rocks)[5]

Mucophagia (consumption of mucus)

Odowa (soft stones eaten by pregnant women in Kenya)[6]

Consumption of paint.

Pagophagia (pathological consumption of ice)

Self-cannibalism (rare condition where body parts may be consumed; see also Lesch-Nyhan syndrome)

Trichophagia (consumption of hair or wool)

Urophagia (consumption of urine)

Xylophagia (consumption of wood or paper)

This pattern of eating should last at least one month to fit the diagnosis of pica.

Diagnosis
There is no single test that confirms pica. However, because pica can occur in people who have lower than normal nutrient levels and poor nutrition (malnutrition), the health care provider should test blood levels of iron and zinc. Hemoglobin can also be checked to test for anemia. Lead levels should always be checked in children who may have eaten paint or objects covered in lead-paint dust. The health care provider should test for infection if the person has been eating contaminated soil or animal waste

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

People who consume animal products usually do not get afflicted with this unless there are other imbalances —this is usually those on vegetarian Diet —will consume things that are unusal—this is again a sign of starvation—lack of nutrients or minerals—so one way to avoid this is to ge adequate nutrients—if not in Diet then in supplementation—or in the consumption of veges or fruits that are fermented to yield a higher mineral and nutrient uptake due to the fibre being broken down releasing the vitality of it’scompliment—People who crave clay usually are trying to fulfill mineral loss—In some cases a Iron ( gotten from meats) and zinc ( animal Protein) restored to the diet will sometimes restore a person to normal—those who consume ice ( pagophagia)—are usually iron deficient—In some cases cannibalism has ben recorded as well or different animals from cats and dogs to mice ( while they are living)—The asian Diet is low in calcium and as a result leach the bones with vinegar to obtain there calcium levels—Magnesium deficiency will result in higher salt use —and Potassium deficiency will be a result of diuretic use –so if you utilize diuretics then make sure you use a dandelion tea it puts potassium back into the system—Minerals Like chromium if there is a deficiency the cravings will be for a pop ( soft drink)and high consumption of grain related carbs—

Cannibalism —would be an extreme case of pica as result of high mineral deficiency

Animals can show signs of this by consuming bones –wood-and cattle will sometimes gnaw on each others horns as well especially if they have a phosphorus need—

History
The term pica originates from the Latin word for magpie, a bird that is reputed for its unusual eating behaviors where they are known to eat almost anything. In 13th century Latin work, pica was referenced by the Greeks and Romans; however, it was not addressed in medical texts until 1563. In the southern United States in the 1800s, geophagia was a common practice among the slave population.[Geophagia is a form of pica in which the person consumes earthly substances such as clay, and is particularly prevalent to augment a mineral-deficient diet. Research on eating disorders in the 16th century to the 20th century suggests that during that time in history, pica was regarded more as a symptom of other disorders rather than its own specific disorder. Even today, what can be classified as pica behavior is a normative practice in some cultures as part of magical beliefs, healing methods, or religious ceremonies.

*************************************************************************

Formula-feeding linked to metabolic stress and increased risk of later disease
June 5th, 2013 in Chemistry / Biochemistry

New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life. —New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life. Credit: iStockphoto/Thinkstock—New evidence from research suggests that infants fed formula, rather than breast milk, experience metabolic stress that could play a part in the long-recognized link between formula-feeding and an increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and other conditions in adult life.[F4] The study appears in ACS’ Journal of Proteome Research.—Carolyn Slupsky and colleagues explain that past research showed a link between formula-feeding and a higher risk for chronic diseases later in life. Gaps exist, however, in the scientific understanding of the basis for that link. The scientists turned to rhesus monkeys, stand-ins for human infants in such research, that were formula-fed or breast-fed for data to fill those gaps.

Their analysis of the monkeys’ urine, blood and stool samples identified key differences between formula-fed and breast-fed individuals. It also produced hints that reducing the protein content of infant formula might be beneficial in reducing the metabolic stress in formula-fed infants[F5] . “Our findings support the contention that infant feeding practice profoundly influences metabolism in developing infants and may be the link between early feeding and the development of metabolic disease later in life,” the study states.— The article is titled “Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism.”–More information: Early Diet Impacts Infant Rhesus Gut Microbiome, Immunity, and Metabolism, J. Proteome Res., Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/pr4001702—- Abstract
Epidemiological research has indicated a relationship between infant formula feeding and increased risk of chronic diseases later in life including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The present study used an infant rhesus monkey model to compare the comprehensive metabolic implications of formula- and breast-feeding practices using NMR spectroscopy to characterize metabolite fingerprints from urine and serum, in combination with anthropometric measurements, fecal microbial profiling, and cytokine measurements. Here we show that formula-fed infants are larger than their breast-fed counterparts and have a different gut microbiome that includes higher levels of bacteria from the Ruminococcus genus and lower levels of bacteria from the [F6] Lactobacillus genus. In addition, formula-fed infants have higher serum insulin coupled with higher amino acid levels, while amino acid degradation products were higher in breast-fed infants. Increases in serum and urine galactose and urine galactitol were observed in the second month of life in formula-fed infants, along with higher levels of TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, and other cytokines and growth factors at week 4. These results demonstrate that metabolic and gut microbiome development of formula-fed infants is different from breast-fed infants and that the choice of infant feeding may hold future health consequences.—-Provided by American Chemical Society

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Zanthoxylum Avicennae-Prickly Ash Leaves or Seeds

[Study on the chemical components, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of the essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae].

Zhong Yao Cai. 2012 Aug;35(8):1263-7

Authors: Zhang DS, Zhong QX, Song XM, Liu WJ, Wang J, Zhang QY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents, antimicrobial activity and antitumor activity of the essential oil from Zanthoxylum avicennae.
METHODS: The essential oil from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae was extracted by steam distillation. The components of the essential oil were separated and identified by GC-MS.–RESULTS: 72 components were identified and accounted for 98.15% of the all peak area. The essential oil exhibited strong antitumor activity against K-562 human tumor cell lines with IC50 of 1.76 microg/mL. It also exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against three bacteria.—CONCLUSION: The essential oil of Zanthoxylum avicennae contains various active constituents. This result provides scientific reference for the pharmacological further research of Zanthoxylum avicennae.–PMID: 23320360 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Getting Enough Sleep Could Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes
June 18, 2013 — Men who lose sleep during the work week may be able to lower their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes by getting more hours of sleep, according to Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (LA BioMed) research findings presented today at The Endocrine Society’s 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.—The study by Peter Liu, MD, PhD, an LA BioMed lead researcher, found that insulin sensitivity, the body’s ability to clear glucose (blood sugar) from the bloodstream, significantly improved after three nights of “catch-up sleep” on the weekend in men with long-term, weekday sleep restrictions.—“We all know we need to get adequate sleep, but that is often impossible because of work demands and busy lifestyles,” said Dr. Liu. “Our study found extending the hours of sleep can improve the body’s use of insulin, thereby reducing the risk of Type 2 diabetes in adult men. –Insulin is a hormone that regulates a person’s blood sugar level. The body of a patient with Type 2 diabetes cannot effectively use the insulin it produces, or it becomes “resistant” to insulin. Retaining the body’s sensitivity to insulin reduces the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, a chronic illness that is the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S.–Other research had demonstrated the harmful effects of experimental sleep restriction on insulin sensitivity in healthy, normal sleepers. The new study provides information about people who lose sleep during the week — often because of jobs and busy lifestyles — but “catch up” on their sleep on the weekends.-“The good news is that by extending the hours they sleep, adult men — who over a long period of time do not get enough sleep during the working week — can still improve their insulin sensitivity,” Liu said.-Liu and researchers from the University of Sydney in Australia studied 19 non-diabetic men, with an average age of 28.6 years, who for six months or longer (average, 5.1 years) self-reported inadequate sleep during the workweek. On average, the men received only 6.2 hours of sleep each work night. But they regularly caught up on their sleep on the weekends, sleeping an extra 37.4 percent, or 2.3 hours, per night, the authors reported. Their reported sleep times were verified by actigraphy, in which each man wore a small device on his wrist that monitored sleep-wake cycles.—The men spent three nights in a sleep lab on each of two separate weekends. The researchers randomly assigned the men to two of three sleep conditions: (1) 10 hours of sleep, (2) six hours of sleep or (3) 10 hours in bed, in which noises during deep sleep aroused them into shallow sleep without waking them. The six hours of sleep tested persistent sleep restriction.—On the fourth morning, the research staff drew the men’s blood to measure their blood sugar and insulin levels to calculate insulin sensitivity. Each individual had the same food intake during the study visits, so that diet would not influence the results, Liu said.—When the men slept 10 hours a night on each of three nights of catch-up sleep, their insulin sensitivity was much better than when they had persistent sleep restriction, the scientists found. Their insulin resistance test score also improved (decreased) with sleep extension.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (LA BioMed).

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Timing of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation May Affect How Bone Adapts to Exercise
June 18, 2013 — Taking calcium and vitamin D before exercise may influence how bones adapt to exercise, according to a new study. The results will be presented on Tuesday at The Endocrine Society’s 95th Annual Meeting in San Francisco.—“The timing of calcium supplementation, and not just the amount of supplementation, may be an important factor in how the skeleton adapts to exercise training,” said study lead author Vanessa D. Sherk, PhD, postdoctoral research fellow at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus. “Further research, however, is needed to determine whether the timing of calcium supplementation affects the skeletal adaptations to exercise training.”—Previous research has shown that a year of intense training is associated with substantial decreases in bone mineral density among competitive road cyclists. Experts believe that this kind of exercise-induced bone loss could be related to the loss of calcium during exercise. As blood calcium levels drop, the parathyroid gland produces excess parathyroid hormone, which can mobilize calcium from the skeleton.—In this study, investigators found that an exercise-induced decrease in blood calcium occurred whether calcium supplements were taken before or after exercising. Pre-exercise supplementation, however, resulted in less of a decrease. Although not statistically significant, parathyroid hormone levels increased slightly less among cyclists who took calcium before exercising.—“These findings are relevant to individuals who engage in vigorous exercise and may lose a substantial amount of calcium through sweating,” Sherk said. “Taking calcium before exercise may help keep blood levels more stable during exercise, compared to taking the supplement afterwards, but we do not yet know the long-term effects of this on bone density.”—The timing of calcium supplementation did not cause a difference in blood levels of a compound that is a biological indicator of bone loss. Both the before- and after-exercise groups exhibited 50-percent increases in the level of this compound, called CTX, for collagen type-1 C-telopeptide.—Study participants included 52 men aged 18 to 45 years. Investigators randomly assigned participants to take 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 1,000 international units of vitamin D either 30 minutes before or one hour after exercise. The exercise comprised a simulated 35-kilometer time trial, and participants wore skin patches to absorb sweat.—Investigators measured blood levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone before and immediately after exercise. They also measured CTX before and 30 minutes after exercise. They used pre- and post-body weight, adjusted for fluid intake, combined with the calcium measured in the sweat from the skin patches, to estimate the amount of calcium lost through the skin during exercise.–The National Institutes of Health and the American College of Sports Medicine funded the study.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Endocrine Society, via Newswise.

Special Note— if anyone was going to try this then you would not use 1000mgs of Calcium but rather 300mmgs with magnesium 150mgs—or you would utilize a creatine with the calcium or even a carbonated calcium —this would insure absorption and usage —there test were flawed because there deliver system would not work due to the overloading of calcium—even comboing it with gelatin as well—then you would be chelating the minerals into the system

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Aspirin May Fight Cancer by Slowing DNA Damage
June 18, 2013 — Aspirin is known to lower risk for some cancers, and a new study led by a UC San Francisco scientist points to a possible explanation, with the discovery that aspirin slows the accumulation of DNA mutations in abnormal cells in at least one pre-cancerous condition.—-“Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which are commonly available and cost-effective medications, may exert cancer-preventing effects by lowering mutation rates,” said Carlo Maley, PhD, a member of the UCSF Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, and an expert on how cancers evolve in the body over time. In the study, published June 13 in the online journal PLOS Genetics, Maley, working with gastroenterologist and geneticist Brian Reid, MD, PhD, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, analyzed biopsy samples from 13 patients with a pre-cancerous condition called Barrett’s esophagus who were tracked for six to 19 years. In an “observational crossover” study design, some patients started out taking daily aspirin for several years, and then stopped, while others started taking aspirin for the first time during observation. The goal was to track the rate of mutations in tissues sampled at different times.—The researchers found that biopsies taken while patients were on an aspirin had on average accumulated new mutations about 10 times more slowly than biopsies obtained during years when patients were not taking aspirin.[F7] —“This is the first study to measure genome-wide mutation rates of a pre-malignant tissue within patients for more than a decade, and the first to evaluate how aspirin affects those rates,” Maley said.—Gender and ethnic distribution of study patients reflected the known demographics of esophageal cancer, which predominantly affects, white, middle-aged and elderly men, he said. Barrett’s esophagus only occasionally progresses to esophageal cancer.—Cancers are known to accumulate mutations over time much more rapidly than normal tissue, and different mutations arise in different groups of cells within the same tumor. The acquisition of key mutations ultimately allows tumor cells to grow out of control, and diversity within a tumor may foster drug resistance, a phenomenon that is a major focus of Maley’s research.—-Maley plans to test a hypothesis that may explain the results — that aspirin’s lowering of mutation rates is due to the drug’s effect of reducing inflammation. Inflammation, a response of the immune system, in recent years has been recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Maley said that less inflammation may result in less production within pre-cancerous tissue of oxidants known to damage DNA, and may dampen growth-stimulating signaling.—For the duration of the study, the rate of accumulation of mutations measured in the biopsied tissue between time points was slow, even when patients were not taking aspirin, with the exception of one patient. While mutations accumulated at a steady rate, the vast majority of mutations arose before the abnormal tissue was first detected in the clinic, the researchers concluded.—These findings are consistent with the fact that although Barrett’s esophagus is a significant risk factor for esophageal cancer, the vast majority of cases do not progress to cancer, Maley said.

In the one patient who later went on to develop cancer, a population of cellular “clones” with a great number of mutations emerged shortly before he started taking aspirin.—More studies are needed to further explore the link between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, mutation rates and the development of invasive cancer, Maley said. He plans to continue studying Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal cancer, and to expand his research to investigate lung cancer.–Rather than aiming to kill the most tumor cells, it may be better to try to halt or slow growth and mutation. Current drug treatments for cancer may in many cases hasten the emergence of cancer that is more difficult to eradicate, according to Maley. The capability to mutate frequently allows tumors to become resistant to drug treatment, he said. A better-adapted mutant can begin to spin off a population of genetic clones that survives and grows, while poorly adapted tumor cells die off.[F8] –Additional authors from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center include Xiaohong Li, PhD, Carissa Sanchez, PhD, Patricia Galipeau, PhD, Thomas Paulson, PhD, Patricia Blount, PhD, Thomas Vaughan, PhD, and Cassandra Sather, PhD. Amitabh Srivastava, MD, and Robert Odze, MD, from Harvard University; Rumen Kostadinov, PhD, from the University of Pennsylvania; and Mary Kuhner, PhD from the University of Washington also were members of the research team and authors of the study.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). The original article was written by Jeffrey Norris. –Journal Reference-Rumen L. Kostadinov, Mary K. Kuhner, Xiaohong Li, Carissa A. Sanchez, Patricia C. Galipeau, Thomas G. Paulson, Cassandra L. Sather, Amitabh Srivastava, Robert D. Odze, Patricia L. Blount, Thomas L. Vaughan, Brian J. Reid, Carlo C. Maley. NSAIDs Modulate Clonal Evolution in Barrett’s Esophagus. PLoS Genetics, 2013; 9 (6): e1003553 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003553

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Minerals—-

% Average Human Body Content

(70 kg person)

Macrominerals (Essential)

Oxygen 65.4 43 kg

Carbon 18.2 12 kg

Hydrogen 9.5 6.3 kg

Nitrogen 3 2 kg

Calcium 1.67 1.1 kg

Phosphorus 1.14 750 grams

Potassium 0.342 225 grams

Sulfur 0.228 150 grams

Chloride 0.152 100 grams

Sodium 0.137 90 grams

Magnesium 0.053 35 grams

Silicon 0.046 30 grams

Microminerals Essentiality

Iron 0.00638 4,200 mg Essential

Fluoride 0.00395 2,600 mg Possibly Essential

Zinc 0.00365 2,400 mg Essential

Rubidium 0.000532 350 mg Probably Essential

Strontium 0.000486 320 mg Possibly Essential

Lead 0.000243 160 mg Toxic

Copper 0.000137 90 mg Essential

Aluminium 0.0000988 65 mg Toxic

Cadmium 0.0000608 40 mg Toxic

Barium 0.0000344 22 mg Possibly Essential

Cobalt 0.0000304 20 mg Essential

Vanadium 0.0000304 20 mg Probably Essential

Iodine 0.0000228 15 mg Essential

Tin 0.0000228 15 mg Possibly Essential

Selenium 0.0000228 15 mg Essential

Arsenic 0.0000228 15 mg Possibly Essential

Manganese 0.0000198 13 mg Essential

Mercury 0.0000190 12.5 mg Toxic

Nickel 0.0000167 11 mg Possibly Essential

Molybdenum 0.0000122 8 mg Essential

Chromium 0.0000091 6 mg Essential

Bismuth 0.0000045 3 mg Probably Toxic

Lithium 0.0000038 2.5 mg Probably Essential

Uranium 90 mcg Toxic

Boron Probably Essential

Germanium Probably Essential

Bromine Possibly Essential

Gold Probably Non Essential

Silver Probably Non Essential

Beryllium Probably Toxic

Antimony Slightly Toxic

Thallium Toxic

Forms of Minerals (Generally)

Mineral Form Mineral Bonded With Comments

Inorganic Salts: Phosphates-Sulfates-Chlorides Important for Electrolyte balance.

Organic Acid Salts-Ascorbates-Acetates-Citrates Natural and more effectively absorbed by the Digestive System than Inorganic Salts

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Amino Acid Chelates-Amino Acids The best form of absorption of Minerals. Specific Minerals chelate best with specific Amino Acids.

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[F1]Methods such as these can be done with almost any fat ( lipid) —and directing them would be what you would sompile in the lipid ( fat)

[F2]Creating a Nanoparticle delivery or liposomal delivery to get things into the cells would be a good concept—with cells salt is one way and mixing a salt with some of these herbals may in fact potentiate them better

[F3]Rhodiola Rosea acts as an Antioxidant and Life Extending even on a restricted diet

[F4]This would have to do with the soy proteins in the formulas which are low on the protein scale for uptake and digestibility—the strain and stress on the digestive system would cause the colon to become corrupt with bad bacteria

[F5]Would be better to give a child a higher profile of protein then the soy and rice in the formulas—they are low on the bv and are excessively difficult t break down even for an adult so the excretment would be a direct result of the proteins passing through thedigestive system and causing damage topancreas-liver and stomach

[F6]Gut flora affects brain functionality in the utmost way—so damaging this will effect emotional and mental up the way

[F7]Make sure if you use an aspirin it does not have yellow coluring agents-synthetic flavours—natural or artificial flavours or polymers—if necessary buy a a supply for animals will be cleaner—and mix this with magnesium and choline as well to insure effect and safety

[F8]This is why today you need more then one remedy and a lifestyle change due to the genetics of cancer and capacity to mutate and adapt—this is how morgellons works as well they are finding more and more that cancer tumours are carrying crystal like components and by offsetting the inflammation this can allow the body to remove the nano particles out through antioxidant free radical