Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – Month July 19th 2014

Tony Pantallaresco

Welcome to Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – Month July 19th 2014

Topics in this weeks show include:

Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil
Cinnamon may be used to halt progression of Parkinson’s disease

Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics
Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes’ Immune Boost

Probiotics and athletic performance

Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

Zinc deficiency magnifies, prolongs lethal immune response to sepsis

Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.

J Nat Prod. 2014 Mar 28;77(3):603-10

Authors: Ramos Alvarenga RF, Wan B, Inui T, Franzblau SG, Pauli GF, Jaki BU

Abstract
The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. –PMID: 24641242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Cinnamon may be used to halt progression of Parkinson’s disease

Date:

July 9, 2014
Source:
Rush University Medical Center
Neurological scientists at Rush University Medical Center have found that using cinnamon, a common food spice and flavoring material, can reverse the biomechanical, cellular and anatomical changes that occur in the brains of mice with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results of the study were recently published in the June 20 issue of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.–“Cinnamon has been used widely as a spice throughout the world for centuries,” said Kalipada Pahan, PhD, study lead researcher and the Floyd A. Davis professor of neurology at Rush. “This could potentially be one of the safest approaches to halt disease progression in Parkinson’s patients.”–“Cinnamon is metabolized in the liver to sodium benzoate, which is an FDA-approved drug used in the treatment for hepatic metabolic defects associated with hyperammonemia[F1],” said Pahan. It is also widely used as a food preservative due to its microbiocidal effect.–Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamonum cassia) and original Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) are two major types of cinnamon that are available in the US.–“Although both types of cinnamon are metabolized into sodium benzoate, by mass spectrometric analysis, we have seen that Ceylon cinnamon is much more pure than Chinese cinnamon as the latter contains coumarin, a hepatotoxic molecule,” said Pahan[F2].–“Understanding how the disease works is important to developing effective drugs that protect the brain and stop the progression of PD,” said Pahan. “It is known that some important proteins like Parkin and DJ-1 decrease in the brain of PD patients.”–The study found that after oral feeding, ground cinnamon is metabolized into sodium benzoate, which then enters into the brain, stops the loss of Parkin and DJ-1, protects neurons, normalizes neurotransmitter levels, and improves motor functions in mice with PD.–This research was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health.–“Now we need to translate this finding to the clinic and test ground cinnamon in patients with PD. If these results are replicated in PD patients, it would be a remarkable advance in the treatment of this devastating neurodegenerative disease,” said Dr. Pahan.–Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive disease that affects a small area of cells within the mid-brain known as the substantia nigra. Gradual degeneration of these cells causes a reduction in a vital chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine. The decrease in dopamine results in one or more of the classic signs of Parkinson’s disease that includes: resting tremor on one side of the body; generalized slowness of movement; stiffness of limbs; and gait or balance problems. The cause of the disease is unknown. Both environmental and genetic causes of the disease have been postulated.

Parkinson’s disease affects about 1.2 million patients in the United States and Canada. Although 15 percent of patients are diagnosed before age 50, it is generally considered a disease that targets older adults, affecting one of every 100 persons over the age of 60. This disease appears to be slightly more common in men than women.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Rush University Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Saurabh Khasnavis, Kalipada Pahan. Cinnamon Treatment Upregulates Neuroprotective Proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s11481-014-9552-2

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Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics

by Pip Taylor

A quick glance in the dairy case and it’s obvious that probiotics are wildly popular. Their range of health benefits spans everything from the prevention of obesity to a better mood. They’ve been praised for their ability to reduce allergies and certain cancer risks as well, for which there is well-supported scientific evidence. But what about for endurance athletes? Can these “friendly” bacteria offer a performance-enhancing boost?–Probiotics are live microbes available in supplements or fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir and homemade versions of sauerkraut and pickled vegetables. Probiotics help support and maintain the existing human gut flora, which is being found to hold the key to determining many aspects of human health. The composition, numbers and types of bacteria that reside in our gut influence body weight, mood state, oral and skin health and, most importantly, our immune system function. –For triathletes, probiotics may be considered a performance enhancer—albeit an indirect one—due to the following effects:

Strengthened immunity: For the elite or serious amateur athlete, frequent hard training means that the immune system is often suppressed, leaving you more susceptible to common colds and illnesses. Studies have shown that athletes who supplement with probiotics are less likely to suffer from upper respiratory infections, and when they do, the duration and severity of that cold is less

Reduced incidence of GI distress: GI issues are the bane of many athletes’ existence, striking pros and amateurs alike and often even after careful race planning. Probiotics have been shown to prevent or reduce various gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, which translates to less time spent in the port-a-potties and more time setting PR’s.

Improved digestion and absorption of nutrients: Better nutrient uptake means that athletes pushing the limits will be better placed to not only nail hard workouts, but also recover faster and be able to return to training more quickly. Although the mechanisms may not be yet understood, all of these effects lead to more consistent training and enhanced recovery.—Originally from: http://www.ironman.com/triathlon-news/articles/2013/08/probiotics-for-triathletes.aspx#ixzz36pkCZW8A

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Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes’ Immune Boost

Stephen Daniells

A daily probiotic capsule was found to enhance the activity of T cells, key players in the immune system, report the researchers after following 20 elite, endurance athletes during four months of intensive winter training.—“In combination with the recent report that L rhamonasus supplementation reduced the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms in marathon runners in the 2 weeks after the race [Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab, 2007, Vol. 17, pp. 352-363], our findings point to the potential benefits of this form of nutritional intervention,” wrote the authors led by David Pyne from the Australian Institute of Sport.–The study is published online ahead of print in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.–Consumers are increasingly aware of the health benefits associated with probiotics, including improved intestinal health and immune system stimulation.–Indeed, probiotics remains a major growth market. The European sector is set to more than triple in value over the next few years, according to Frost & Sullivan, to reach $137.9 million (€118.5m) in 2010.–The new study adds to the body of science by reporting that the ‘friendly’ bacteria may also produce benefits in endurance athletes undergoing strenuous training, previously reported to be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) linked to the role of strenuous exercise in suppressing the immune system. –Pyne and co-workers recruited the athletes and randomly assigned them to receive either a daily probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus fermentum or placebo. After 28 days of receiving either the probiotic or placebo, they received nothing for one month (washout period) before crossing over to the other intervention. By the end of the study all the athletes had each had the probiotic and placebo formulations.–Athletic performance of the subjects was assessed using a treadmill, while blood samples were taken at regular intervals to measure the immune response. The length and severity of respiratory tract infections were recorded by the subjects themselves.–The researchers report no difference in running performance as a result of placebo or probiotics supplementation. On the other hand, the number of days of symptoms of URTI was halved when the athletes took the probiotic, compared to placebo.–
Specifically, symptoms of URTI’s lasted 30 days when receiving the Lactobacillus supplements, compared to 72 days while taking the placebo. The severity of the symptoms was also less when receiving probiotics, stated the researchers. –The blood samples showed that blood levels of interferon gamma, an important component of the body’s immune response, were doubled when the subjects received probiotics, compared to placebo. However, no significant differences were observed in levels of immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin A1 in the saliva, or levels of interleukin (IL)4 and IL12.–Pyne and co-workers report that the benefits appear to be mediated via an enhancement of the functioning T-lymphocyte function. They do state, however, that the specific mechanism remains unclear and that it was not possible to draw definitive conclusions from the findings of the current study.—“Further investigations are required to determine whether the beneficial effects of probiotic administration can translate to both the general public and specialised populations like elite athletes, clinical conditions, immuno-compromised subjects, and military and industrial settings,” wrote Pyne and co-workers. —“The finding of clinical benefits with probiotic supplementation in a small cohort of physically fit subjects, provides the basis for further studies examining the beneficial effects of L fermentum VRI-003 administration on immune function in both the general community and specific populations,” they concluded. —Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Published online ahead of print, doi 10.1136/bjsm.2007.044628
“Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VR1-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes”–Authors: A.J. Cox, D.B. Pyne, P.U. Saunders, P.A. Fricker

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Probiotics and athletic performance

Nichols AW.
Author information

Abstract

Probiotic bacteria are defined as live food ingredients that are beneficial to the health of the host. Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, including effects on gastrointestinal tract function and diseases, immune function, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and allergic conditions. A systematic review of the medical literature failed to identify any studies that directly investigated the potential ergogenic effects of probiotics on athletic performance. Two published articles suggest that probiotics may enhance the immune responses of fatigued athletes. In summary, although scientific evidence for an ergogenic effect of probiotics is lacking, probiotics may provide athletes with secondary health benefits that could positively affect athletic performance through enhanced recovery from fatigue, improved immune function, and maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal tract function.

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Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.

de Vrese M1, Schrezenmeir J.
Author information

Abstract

According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated–as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii–with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous[F3] microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis). A prebiotic is “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health”, whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides.

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Zinc deficiency magnifies, prolongs lethal immune response to sepsis

Date:
July 15, 2014
Source:
Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science

The immune system recognizes proteins unique to bacteria and immediately starts to recruit zinc into cells to help fight off the infection. New research from Ohio State scientists has found that adequate zinc is essential for keeping the immune system in balance, particularly during severe infections like sepsis.—During a severe infection known as sepsis, a deficiency in zinc intake can cause an amplified and potentially deadly immune response, according to new research conducted by scientists at The Ohio State University. By analyzing the DNA of zinc-deficient mice with sepsis, the researchers identified a critical immune system pathway that relies on zinc to stop overproduction of an inflammatory protein that if left unchecked, can start to destroy healthy cells.–“When the body detects an infection, zinc is recruited to help produce immune response proteins, and then it’s used to stop their production,” said lead author Daren Knoell, PharmD, PhD, a professor of pharmacy and internal medicine at Ohio State. “But zinc deficiency during sepsis appears to cause a catastrophic malfunctioning of the system, resulting in a magnified and prolonged inflammatory response.”–Sepsis, a complication resulting from a systemic infection, is a leading cause of death in US intensive care units. As many as 20% of people who develop sepsis will die, not from the infection itself — but from the overload of inflammatory chemical signals created by the immune system which ultimately leads to organ failure.–Knoell and his research team found that zinc moderates the pathway that controls the “on-off switch” of genes that produce immune response proteins, preventing the inflammation they cause from harming healthy tissue. It’s the second zinc-dependent immune regulating pathway that Knoell and his team have discovered in the past five years.–“This research builds upon our past findings and further demonstrates that our immune system requires zinc to achieve a balanced and effective defense against overwhelming infection,” said Knoell. “This new evidence provides further incentive to determine the extent to which zinc may be useful to prevent or treat sepsis, particularly in patients that may be zinc deficient.”–While the findings seem to suggest that zinc supplementation could benefit patients at risk for sepsis, Knoell says it’s not that simple.–“During illness, the body diverts zinc from the blood to the organs, so a deficiency is hard to detect, particularly in people who are already sick,” said Knoell, who is a member of Ohio State’s Food Innovation Center. “Without a way to better define the deficiency, we aren’t able to define the ideal patient or a therapeutic dose of zinc.”–Determining zinc’s role in sepsis is also challenging. Next to iron, zinc is the most abundant mineral in the human body, interacting with as many as 10,000 proteins within the genome. While scientists have known that zinc is essential to human health and the immune system for hundreds of years, until recently, very little was known about how it functions on a molecular level.– To help identify genes and signaling pathways that may be influenced by zinc, Knoell and his team performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of lung tissue taken from zinc-deficient mice with sepsis. They found that in the presence of sepsis, multiple networks and pathways were impacted by the zinc deficiency. One of the most robust alterations was observed in the JAK-STAT3 pathway and the production of serum amyloid A (SAA) — a protein which has only recently been identified as a key player in the body’s immune response–“Without zinc present in sufficient quantities, the JAK-STAT pathway keeps giving the genes the “on” signal, and continues production of this inflammatory protein,” said Knoell. “When we add zinc back into the equation, it stops JAK-STAT, SAA production and the acute response activity– Knoell says that finding SAA’s presence in the development of sepsis is interesting, as the protein has been connected with other inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease.– These findings not only provide some evidence for why zinc-based cold remedies may work, but also provide hints of how a zinc imbalance might also play a role in chronic diseases connected with inflammation– Knoell, who is also a researcher at Ohio Stat’s Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Institute, has been studying the relationship between zinc and sepsis for 8 years. Previous research by his lab identified zinc’s impact on another immune regulating pathway called NF-kappaB. Knoell’s lab was the first to show how the mineral helped control activity of an NF-kappaB protein called IKKbeta in human immune cells, subsequently reducing inflammation and preventing damage to cells.— Earlier research conducted by Knoell also showed that zinc-deficient mice developed overwhelming inflammation in response to sepsis and were three times more likely to die than mice on a normal diet. Zinc supplementation improved outcomes in the zinc-deficient mice–Knoell says a next step is to see if these recent findings apply to humans. Knoell says his lab and other researchers are also actively looking for zinc-related biomarkers that can help scientists determine how much zinc is being utilized by the immune system and to help predict who might be at risk for developing sepsis-“Once we can determine at risk patients, then we can start a much more systematic evaluation of zinc supplementation,” Knoell said. “With so few interventions available for sepsis, I’m hopeful we’ll see more energy around developing a zinc-based therapy in the next few years.”– Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Ming-Jie Liu, Shengying Bao, Jessica R. Napolitano, Dara L. Burris, Lianbo Yu, Susheela Tridandapani, Daren L. Knoell. Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (4): e94934 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094934 .

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