Welcom to Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – Month August 2014
As we have fallen behind with the show notes and this blog in general, we are posting tony Pantallerescos show notes by the month! There is allot of very good information here so take your time and enjoy….
Show of the Month August 2-2014
Eight ways zinc affects the human body
Iodine may alleviate swelling in retinitis pigmentosa patients’ retinas
Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice
Adults with eosinophilic esophagitis should consider a diet change
The role of dairy in maintaining adult bone and skeletal muscle health
Milk does a Body Good
Eight ways zinc affects the human body
July 18, 2014
Institute of Food Technologists (IFT)
Researchers identified zinc as one of the most important essential trace metals in human nutrition and lifestyle in a new review article in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). Zinc is not only a vital element in various physiological processes; it is also a drug in the prevention of many diseases.—The adult body contains about two to three grams of zinc. It is found in organs, tissues, bones, fluids, and cells. Foods with high protein content, specifically animal protein, are major sources of zinc in the human diet. Zinc can also be used as fortification for other foods as well. Nearly half of the world’s population is at risk for inadequate zinc intake. The article reviewed numerous studies that showed a relationship between zinc and vital human physiological processes such as the following:
Brain: The blood zinc level is less in patients with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease (Brewer, and others 2010).In a rodent study, it was observed that zinc behaves like an antidepressant (Nowak and others, 2005).
Cardiovascular System: Zinc performs a noteworthy role in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Males and females were reported to metabolize zinc differently when suffering from hypertension (Tubek, 2007).
Liver: Zinc deficiency in the liver occurs not only in those with liver cirrhosis, but also in less advanced alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (Bode and others, 1998).
Pregnancy: A mild deficiency of zinc during a pregnancy can cause increased maternal morbidity, abnormal taste sensation, prolonged gestation, inefficient labor, atonic bleeding, and an increased risk to fetuses (Jameson, 1993).
Diabetes: Zinc is very important in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin (Chausmer 1998). A low level of zinc has been shown to play a role in diabetics with associated disease conditions such as coronary artery disease and several related risk factors including hypertension, and elevated levels of triglycerides (Singh and others, 1998).
Endocrine System: Studies show a correlation between zinc deficiency in geriatric patients and reduced activity of the thymus gland and thymic hormones, decreased response to vaccinations, and reduced immunity (Haase and Rink, 2009).
Healing: Zinc deficiency has been linked with delayed wound healing, and has been found to be crucial to the healing of gastric ulcers especially at the early stage (Kennan and Morris, 1993; Andrews and Gallagher-Allred, 1999; Watanabe, 1995).
Pneumonia: Zinc may shorten the duration of severe pneumonia and time in the hospital (Brooks, 2004).
Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Kuljeet Kaur, Rajiv Gupta, Shubhini A. Saraf, Shailendra K. Saraf. Zinc: The Metal of Life. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2014; 13 (4): 358 DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12067
Suggestions—zinc citrate—zinc picolinate—zinc cysteine-zinc ascorbate—would be effective for immune response and support and for insulin regulating
Iodine may alleviate swelling in retinitis pigmentosa patients’ retinas
July 21, 2014
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Cystoid macular edema (CME) is a common complication of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a family of retinal diseases in which patients typically lose night and side vision first and then develop impaired central vision. CME can also decrease central vision. Current treatments for CME in RP are not always effective and can lead to adverse results.—Researchers from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, and Boston University School of Medicine tested whether the extent of retinal swelling due to CME was inversely related to dietary iodine intake in patients with RP and found that it was. This finding raises the possibility that an iodine supplement could help limit or reduce central foveal swelling in RP patients with CME. Their results are presented online in the July issue of JAMA Ophthalmology.–Past research performed on a previous population showed an inverse association between the presence of CME and reported iodine supplementation in RP patients. This finding and physiology research by others pointed to iodine as being worth investigating further. In the present experiment, the researchers performed a cross-sectional observational study of 212 nonsmoking patients 18 to 69 years of age who were referred to Mass. Eye and Ear for RP with visual acuity of no worse than 20/200 in at least one eye. They used optical coherence tomography to measure central foveal swelling due to CME in the patients. Total dietary intake of iodine was estimated from multiple (preferably, 10) spot urine samples collected at home.–The investigators found that the magnitude of central foveal swelling due to CME was inversely related to urinary iodine concentration when emphasizing data with more reproducible urinary iodine concentrations (p<.001) — patients with the lowest urinary iodine levels tended to have retinas with the most swelling[F1] .–“Additional study is required to determine whether an iodine supplement can limit or reduce the extent of CME in patients with RP,” said Michael A. Sandberg, Ph.D., lead author of the study and senior scientist in the Berman-Gund Laboratory for the Study of Retinal Degenerations at Massachusetts Eye and Ear and Associate Professor of Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Michael A. Sandberg, Elizabeth N. Pearce, Shyana Harper, Carol Weigel-DiFranco, Lois Hart, Bernard Rosner, Eliot L. Berson. The Relationship of Central Foveal Thickness to Urinary Iodine Concentration in Retinitis Pigmentosa With or Without Cystoid Macular Edema. JAMA Ophthalmology, 2014; DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.1726 Suggestion—when using the lugols apply 1-4 drops a day in divided doses and go up to 10 drops daily—you can see if this will be effective—if you find it is suffice at 6-7 drops then that will be all you need and maintain this for several months—cycling off or reducing as needed—this should be an effective method—you can increase or decrease the dose as you see fit—if there should be a issue with the heart as a palpitation then increase the use of magnesium This is a suggested method and any use of the information is the sole responsibility of the individual applying these or any other method There should be no issue but anything excessive maybe a issue in imbalancing the body so use this in increments and moderate your results with the use ************************************************************************** Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PLoS One. 2013;8(11):e80335 Authors: Weidner C, Wowro SJ, Rousseau M, Freiwald A, Kodelja V, Abdel-Aziz H, Kelber O, Sauer S Abstract Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE)[F2] for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo[F3] treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg[F4] /d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.–PMID: 24265809 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Recipe—make a ethanolic alcohol extract— see the herbal extract video on youtube– ************************************************************************ Adults with eosinophilic esophagitis should consider a diet change Date: July 18, 2014 Source: American Gastroenterological Association Dietary elimination is a successful method of treatment for adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), according to a new study in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association.—“By eliminating specific foods from patients’ diets, symptoms improved in 71 percent of patients, and endoscopic appearance improved in 54 percent,” said lead study author, W. Asher Wolf, MD, MPH, and co-author Evan S. Dellon, MD, MPH, from the division of gastroenterology and hepatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine. “These strong results support dietary elimination therapy as an effective treatment for adults suffering from EoE.”–Researchers conducted a retrospective cohort study using the University of North Carolina EoE database from 2006-2012. Subjects were 18 years of age or older and diagnosed with EoE based on consensus guidelines. The study analyzed two diet elimination plans. For the first therapy — targeted elimination — patients underwent evaluation with skin prick testing, and foods that had a positive reaction, as well as any foods identified by patient self-report as being possible triggers regardless of the severity of response, were eliminated. For the other diet prescribed — the six-food elimination diet — dairy, wheat, eggs, soy, nuts and seafood were eliminated from the patient’s diet regardless of skin-prick test results.—Sixty-eight percent of patients who received targeted diet elimination experienced symptom improvement, compared with 78 percent of those who followed a six-food elimination diet plan. For those subjects who responded to six-food elimination diet, one food (or food group) was added back every six weeks, and endoscopy was repeated. Eggs and dairy were found to be the most common triggers, both impacting 44 percent of patients.—[F5] –Importantly, because this study included patients who failed steroid therapy, the overall study population likely represents harder to treat EoE patients. The success of dietary elimination in this population indicates its utility for therapy in patients resistant to steroids.–Because EoE is an allergen/immune mediated condition, dietary elimination therapy has been extensively studied in children and is now a well-established modality in pediatric patients. Until recently, the utility of dietary elimination was unknown in adults. However, evidence is mounting; a June 2014 Gastroenterology meta-analysis2 reported that dietary interventions are effective in producing histologic remission in both pediatric and adult patients with EoE. While the current treatment of swallowed corticosteroids acts topically to reduce esophageal inflammation, no corticosteroid is FDA approved, not all patients respond and, when discontinued, EoE almost always recurs. As such, there is a growing need for a new treatment for patients with EoE.–Further research should emphasize which factors can predict effective dietary therapy, to target therapy to patients most likely to respond.-Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by American Gastroenterological Association. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-W. Asher Wolf, Maya R. Jerath, Sarah L.W. Sperry, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Evan S. Dellon. Dietary Elimination Therapy Is an Effective Option for Adults With Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2014; 12 (8): 1272 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.12.034 *************************************************************************** The role of dairy in maintaining adult bone and skeletal muscle health Date: July 28, 2014 Source: Taylor & Francis Understanding that diets are often built around food groups rather than specific nutrients, researchers from Switzerland, France, and North America decided to examine interactions between four nutrients found in dairy products and their role in preserving bone and skeletal muscle. Their Open Access article with these findings, “Dairy in Adulthood: From Foods to Nutrient Interactions on Bone and Skeletal Muscle Health,” is now available in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition, the Official Publication of the American College of Nutrition and a publication from Routledge.–Calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphate (Pi), vitamin D, and protein are nutrients that impact bone and skeletal muscle integrity. Deficiency in the supply of these nutrients increases with aging. Dairy foods are rich in Ca, Pi, and proteins and in many countries are fortified with vitamin D. Dairy foods are important sources of these nutrients and go a long way to meeting the recommendations, which increase with aging. This review emphasizes the interactions between these 4 nutrients, which, along with physical activity, act through cellular and physiological pathways favoring the maintenance of both bone and skeletal muscle structure and function[F6] .–While bone health is often associated with calcium alone, Calcium’s interactions with inorganic phosphate, vitamin D, and protein are important components of beneficial dairy consumption. Combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of hip and other non-vertebral fractures among older populations, with some studies suggesting that vitamin D actually leads to lower rates of falling in subjects. Dietary protein, while often associated solely with muscle recovery, also promotes bone formation by stimulating both Ca and Pi intestinal absorption and the production of a bone growth factor. And while vitamin D deficiency is associated with muscle weakness, vitamin D and protein supplementation are required together to improve strength.–Combining the four above-mentioned nutrients with physical activity decreases the likelihood of bone and muscle degeneration-related injury in older adults. Dairy products are a convenient way to work them into a diet, as they contain Ca, Pi, and protein at levels comparable to recommended intakes, and are fortified with vitamin D.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Taylor & Francis. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Jean-Philippe Bonjour, Marius Kraenzlin, Régis Levasseur, Michelle Warren, Susan Whiting. Dairy in Adulthood: From Foods to Nutrient Interactions on Bone and Skeletal Muscle Health. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2013; 32 (4): 251 DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2013.816604 ************************************************************************ Milk does a Body Good- we are going to take dairy and show how to use this to make it better and wholesome— Now the best milk to consume is Unpasteurized Milk —the store bought homogenized is basically a leftover milk byproduct—and not even milk—Now if you cannot get Unpasteurized Milk due to Gov’t Stupidity—and regulations—then utilize kefir or yogurt or buttermilk with fat—the effects will not be as pronounced but will still benift Here are some remedies to try to build and restore the body ùFor children take full fat yogurt or kefir 16 oz added to a blender add 1 tsp of gelatin and 1 tablespoon of coconut oil or mct oil—adding wheat germ oil would be good as well—mix in blender and when down ad 1 drop of iodine to the mix after and stir in with either a wooden spoon or chopstick—consume ùIf you can get unpasteurized milk 16 oz then add 1 egg ( farmer bought –and orange or reddish yolk) add cinnamon to this and wheat germ oil blend til mixed then after add your iodine— optional add shilajit or fulvic minerals to this to further make these minerals more readily absorbable ùButtermilk—add glycerol and shila jit-leucine about ¼ tsp and lipase enzyme ¼ tsp—blend together —this will again more readily taken in ùCottage Cheese –full fat 16 oz add to it berries and minerals capsule(s) —B complex 1-3 capsules-and some berry( of choice—avoid strawberries unless home grown or chemical free) add distilled water if necessary and blend ùùin any of these combinations have a potato with this –broiled—baked or mashed—and this will be a complete meal ùùùif you have no choice and are stuck then use powdered milk—add the gelatin and fat to this and minerals and b vitamins to make your self a real milk product ùùCanned Milk can be utilized as well –by again adding fat and nutrients— ùto increase Phosphorus—the egg will do this —sunflower leicithin—or even TSP—if you wish to flavour this then add vanilla or almond extract as some suggestions—to increase fat heat the butter scoop out the cream and add the oil and if you wish add your cq 10 to this and vitamin A and D TOP **************************************************************************** TOP A HOME Show of the Month August 9 2014 Kidney Stones— Teeth Restore Fat—what to use when doing ketosis Toxic –cleaning agents that are supposed to be Dangerous Hydrator internal and external Liquid diets Labourers Health **************************************************************************** Kidney Stones— Citric Acid –will dissolve stones—by using ¼ tsp in water and drunk 4-5 times a day—-the use of magnesium citrate and potasium citrate or a sodium citrate will also assist in the breaking this down—eliminating things like beer-spinach-peanuts-and beets for a period time allowing the kidneys to flush out the crystals Using as well distilled water or reverse osmosis to keep the water clean and to allow for flushing and not adding harmful metals ********************************************************************** Teeth Restore Use 10 grams of TSP ( 2 tsp) 90 grams( 6 tablespoon)—mixed in 24-30 oz distilled water –dissolve—and use a ¼ cup at a time –can be diluted with tap water if to strong—use as a oil pulling pushing this through the teeth and drawing Do not brush—repeat the process 5-7 times—you may see specks of polymers pop out of the mouth—you may see fibres come out—what you may see as well is a reversal of cavity damage and a regrowth—internally you will as well utilize the ascorbate mineral mix to replenish the loss of vitamin C and the use of essential mineral building blocks—magnesium citrate-potassium citrate –boron( borax) TSP ( trisdium phosphate for both sodium and phosphorus) zinc citrate- and baking soda—this done internally will assist in the materials required to upbuild—the elimination of all grains and cereals and breads—and soy are imperative to seeing success—the use of gelatin –will also benefit—nothing with microwave or canola and soybean oils since they are destructive to thyroid—and pancreas stomach-thymus—process foods are to be avoided as well **************************************************************************** Fat—what to use when doing ketosis— Lipase should be incorporated with any fats to assist to break down and conversion of hormones and the use of fats for cellular health and energy for the organs— other things to consider as well would be B5-for energy and fat use and hormonal production—Choline-to regulate the fat usage –L carnitine to convert the fat for energy production- taurine to increase Bile salt production- and sunflower or egg yolk lecithin to control the flow of fat as well—other supplements you may want to take with fat are cq10-Vitamin A-( strongly encourage) Vitamin D ( minimal amounts 400-1000IU) Vitamin E( none soy sourced) essential oil of rosemary-sage-thyme-orange- tangerine-BHT as antioxidants to slow down the break down of the fat so it remains effective longer in the body before it becomes periodized( broken down) and the use of rosemary-bay leaf- thyme-garlic-onion-sage-to again assist in the sustaining the fat and the uses **************************************************************************** Toxic –cleaning agents that are supposed to be Dangerous TSP –sodium and phosphorus Ascorbic Acid- Vitamin C derivative-antioxidant Vinegar—Anti mold –Kills HIV –and is used as an industrial Cleaner Iodine—body support overall –used as an industrial cleaner Turpentine-essential oil of pine-balsaam fir-spruce—Potent antioxidants-supports male endocrine system –kills off harmul pathogens in the body Used as an industrial cleaner to sanitize and to remove vermin Colloidal Silver-Colloidal Copper—high powered anti fungals-anti algaeicides-anti bacterial—anti microbial-anti virals—used in the medical settings as industrial cleaning agents Hydrogen Peroxide – pro oxidant—antioxidant—used as an industrial cleaner to remove a host of conditions MMS- sodium chlorite used as a industrial cleaner to kill off all kinds of pathogenic infections Baking Soda—used as a cleaning agent –used in the body to remove fungal over growth –cancer eliminator and digestive aide Thyme and Mint- have been used as a cleaning and sanitizing agents but when and as a oral sanitizer White Wine—used as an industrial cleaning agent used to reduce or clean Mold STS-Sodium Thiolsulphate—used as an industrial cleaner to remove chlorine and used in photography—and paper industry—used as a potent chelating agent for the body removing harmful build up of chemical dust and metals and radioactivity EDTA—used as an industrial cleanser in removing metal ions—and is used as well for chelating metals and some chemicals in the Body Borax-used as a cleaning agent and detergent additive—is also used by the body to heal and regenerate and combines with magnesium to assist with bone health and regulates hormones ************************************************************************ Hydrator internal and external—when going outside and are being exposed to Microwave heat and Hot days and Chemtrails this can have a frying effect on the system allowing the cells to become saturated with the fall out and radiation –so what you want to do is to take glycerin or glycerol and mix lugols iodine with this and apply topically to the skin—take 1 oz of glycerol 10-20 drops of iodine and mix well—you can screw the top of the container if you put it in a 1 oz seal top and either chake or percuss about 100 times the apply—you can wet the areas first with water and then apply allowing this to dry on it’s own sealing the cells with the water and the iodine and glycerol— you can take a tsp of this orally—you can modify by adding TSP –or other electrolytes with the iodine as well —this will alow for sustained hydration-ATP production( energy for the cells) and electrolyte and hydration not to mention anti radiation effect of the iodine ************************************************************************** Liquid diets— what to do to safely clear out and nourish and build with a compromised digestive system—so what would you use—here are several things you can use to assist you—Meat Extracts—take meat—lean—puncture the meat or slice it –then add to a jar—and lightly seal the jar –add to a pot and allow to boil or high simmer for several hours and then when done pour the liquid content to a jar- season with salt if you wish and use tsp increments—Juices utilze and veg or fruit juice and when done add some gelatin to this to increase the mineral uptake and protein along with the antioxidant and vitamin content—an alternative is to allow the juices to break down and ferment so that the sugars can be reduced and the mineral or antioxidant content can increase allowing for better uptake of the nutrients-this will assist in restoration in a lot of areas—Gelatin broths —heating water and dissolving gelatin in distilled water and when dissolved utilize as a beverage—can and herbals as well as minerals with this combination to rebuild muscle-organ-bone and tissue—Fermented Dairy—yogurt-kefir-sour creams—cheese—can be utilized as well in the repairing and regenerating the immune system—repairing the colon—regrowing a colon—cleansing the system and utilizing minerals and proteins and fas more efficiently —can utilize sugars as well to increase bacterial levels—will see butyric acds and lactic acids for killing off cancers — Teas and Herbal Fusions—making teas and using either one or several herbs at a time to increase the desired effect —will release minerals—as well as antioxidants—and vitamins—depending on the combination some will just steep others will boil—Soups which are essential fusions but with a mix of protein and carbs and veges are another way to increase nutrients in a way where one is compromised can see vitality levels return- Protein Drinks or Smoothies can also be utilized as a means of getting high dense nutrients into the body—by adding a fermented dairy with this —can see a more readily use and uptake of the proteins and other minerals mixed with this combination ************************************************************************* Labourers Health— this one is going to be diverse but you will have to utilize the basics to assist you with your daily labours—the one thing all labours need are antioxidants—and the cheapest and most effective of them will be Ascorbic Acid and Sulphur—and the easiest Sulphur is MSM—and the other important power vitamin is B1—this combination can remove toxic build up of industrial and environmental pollutants that labourers are exposed to The minimum dail dose is about 1 gram-1000mgs-1/4 tsp of Ascorbic acid with ¼ tsp of MSM and 100mgs of B1 taken several timesa day usually a minimum of 5 times a day—this may see recovery as well as healing and cleansing effect of the toxins—Food wise depending on the type of labour—should be Protein—then Fat—then fruit or vegs—Breads—Cereals—Pastas—Rice-Corn will be counter productive—consuming either onion—or garlic or ginger with the protein whether in drink as a tea or a juice or mixed with foods will increase much needed Testosterone for men and some for women which will incorporate the proteins more effectively in the muscles—and fruit –berries—cherries—citrus fruits which will have a good mineral content of magnesium and potassium –any apple or pear—or fruits in general—the ones to avoid are banaas –grapes-raisons –watermelon and dates—these have to a high glycemic rate and can be problematic –fats to utilize are the saturated fats—for long term power and energy for the muscles to work—incorporating lipase-to insure usage-B5 – Taurine- Choline-L carnitine will insure the use of the fats for energy –taking these daily in 250-500mgs with meals will increase the use—the lipase being the exception—only need between this can be taken in increments of 1-4 hundred mgs- to insure a good break down of the fats—which can increase fecal volume leaving the tract—the consumption of yogurt and kefir and cottage cheese and cheeses can also increase probiotic activity as well as protein and fats required for stamina and strength—these can be utilized as well TOP A ************************************************************************* ——————————————————————————– [F1]Iodine deficiency would appear to be a cause of eye swelling [F2]Alcohol Extracts [F3]within the living [F4]suggested dose [F5]The question is what type of dairy and what type of egg—this is where this gets sketchy and the bias in favor of soy again is being pushed—soy and casein will have the exact same immune triggering response irregardless of the person and if the soy contamination has not had a thorough washout period then there will be a reaction irrespective of what you eat [F6]Would be in today’s time Unpasteurized Milk not processed —if processed the effect will be at best nominal—with the contaminants ************************************************************************************************************************************************* TOP B HOME Show of the Month August 16 2014 Effect of icariin on osteoblastic differentiation gene expression of human periodontal ligament cells Whey to control diabetes Chili peppers for a healthy gut- Spicy chemical may inhibit gut tumors Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue ************************************************************************** Effect of icariin on osteoblastic differentiation gene expression of human periodontal ligament cells. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2013 Dec 18;45(6):975-8 Authors: Ding Q, Zhang FQ, Ma YS Abstract OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of icariin on human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) differentiation to osteoblast gene expression. METHODS: The fifth generation of the cultured hPDLCs was added with the concentration of 0.01 mg/L icariin, and the added osteogenic medium used as blank control group, alizarin red staining of icariin on human periodontal ligament cells was observed for 21 days; the 2, 4, and 6 days of Q-PCR quantitative analysis of icariin on human periodontal ligament cells were made for osteogenesis gene alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen and osteocalcin (OC) gene expression. RESULTS: For the 21 days, alizarin red staining icariin group formed more mineralized nodules; on the 2nd, 4th, and 6th days, the group of icariin promoted the expression of ALP and OC mRNA, reached the peak value on day 6, compared with the control group with significant difference (20.15±6.67 vs. 7.90±0.71, 4.13±0.56 vs. 3.55±0.08, P<0.01). The second day, the highest expression of type I collagen appeared, then decreased gradually after, statistically compared with the control group (P<0.05).–CONCLUSION: Icariin can promote the human periodontal ligament cells differentiation to osteoblast, and promote the osteogenesis gene expression.–PMID: 24343085 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Recipe— Take a alcohol extract and apply direct on the gums or utilize as a mix to swish in the mouth ************************************************************************* Whey to control diabetes Date: August 5, 2014 Source: American Friends of Tel Aviv University Blood sugar surges — after-meal glucose “spikes” — can be life threatening for the 29 million Americans with diabetes. Diabetic blood sugar spikes have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, kidney failure, and retinal damage. Now a new Tel Aviv University study, published in Diabetologia, suggests a novel way to suppress these deadly post-meal glucose surges: the consumption of whey protein concentrate, found in the watery portion of milk separated from cheese curds, before breakfast.–According to TAU’s Prof. Daniela Jakubowicz and Dr. Julio Wainstein of the Wolfson Medical Center’s Diabetes Unit, Prof. Oren Froy of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Prof. Bo Ahrén of Lund University in Sweden, the consumption of whey protein before meals may even keep diabetics’ need for insulin treatment at bay.–“What’s remarkable is that consuming whey protein before meals reduces the blood sugar spikes seen after meals. It also improves the body’s insulin response, putting it in the same range or even higher than that produced by novel anti-diabetic drugs,” said Prof. Jakubowicz. “High milk intake has long been associated with lower risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease,[F1] and milk whey protein increases the production of a gut hormone called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that stimulates insulin secretion. This, in turn, reduces the blood glucose rise after meals.”-“We hypothesized that stimulating GLP-1 production by consuming whey protein before a meal would enhance insulin secretion and have beneficial glucose-lowering effects in type 2 diabetes,” Prof. Jakubowicz said.——–The study was conducted on 15 individuals with well-controlled type 2 diabetes at Wolfson Medical Center. The participants were randomized to receive either 50 grams of whey in 250 ml water or a placebo,[F2] followed by a standardized high-glycemic index breakfast of three slices of white bread and sugary jelly — a meal designed to produce the maximum post-meal glucose spike.—Blood samples were taken 30 minutes before the meal, when the whey protein or placebo drinks were consumed. Further blood samples, assessing plasma concentration of glucose, intact GLP-1, and insulin concentrations, were taken when the breakfast was served and at 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minute intervals after the meal.—–The researchers found that glucose levels were reduced by 28 percent after the whey pre-load over the 180-minute post-meal period, with a uniform reduction during early and late phases. With whey pre-load, insulin and GLP-1 responses also were significantly higher (105 and 141 percent, respectively), producing a 96 percent increase in early insulin response.—“The early insulin response that usually is deficient in type-2 diabetes was significantly higher after whey protein than with placebo, and the whey protein preload significantly reduced the elevation of blood glucose after breakfast,” said Prof. Jakubowicz. “Whey protein could therefore represent a novel approach for enhancing glucose-lowering strategies in type 2 diabetes.”–Based on the findings of this study, the authors are considering a long-term clinical trial to test the enduring benefits of whey protein consumption for diabetics.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by American Friends of Tel Aviv University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Daniela Jakubowicz, Oren Froy, Bo Ahrén, Mona Boaz, Zohar Landau, Yosefa Bar-Dayan, Tali Ganz, Maayan Barnea, Julio Wainstein. Incretin, insulinotropic and glucose-lowering effects of whey protein pre-load in type 2 diabetes: a randomised clinical trial. Diabetologia, 2014; 57 (9): 1807 DOI: 10.1007/s00125-014-3305-x Suggestion—When Buy a whey product there will be several—whey concentrate-whey isolate-whey hydroslate —in this study the whey concentrate was used because of it is slower release and not used up as quickly—the isolates and hydroslates—are uptaken very easily and can e regulated with the use of fats— Never use any whey mixed with aceslfame-aspartame-neotame-artificial flavour-natural flavour-HFCS-Corn Sugar-SOY—-it should be a plain whey—with no additive—flavours can be real vanilla and real cocoa—or buy plain and add this to the smoothie or protein mix ************************************************************************* Chili peppers for a healthy gut- Spicy chemical may inhibit gut tumors Date: August 1, 2014 Source: University of California, San Diego Health Sciences Chili peppers. Credit: © Alexey Laputin / Fotolia Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that dietary capsaicin — the active ingredient in chili peppers — produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.–The findings are published in the August 1, 2014 issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.–The receptor or ion channel, called TRPV1, was originally discovered in sensory neurons, where it acts as a sentinel for heat, acidity and spicy chemicals in the environment. “These are all potentially harmful stimuli to cells,” said Eyal Raz, MD, professor of Medicine and senior author of the study. “Thus, TRPV1 was quickly described as a molecular ‘pain receptor.’ This can be considered to be its conventional function, which all takes place in the nervous system.”–But Raz and colleagues have found that TPRV1 is also expressed by epithelial cells of the intestines, where it is activated by epidermal growth factor receptor or EGFR. EGFR is an important driver of cell proliferation in the intestines, whose epithelial lining is replaced approximately every four to six days.—“A basic level of EGFR activity is required to maintain the normal cell turnover in the gut,” said Petrus de Jong, MD, first author of the study. “However, if EGFR signaling is left unrestrained, the risk of sporadic tumor development increases.”—The scientists discovered that TRPV1, once activated by the EGFR, initiates a direct negative feedback on the EGFR, dampening the latter to reduce the risk of unwanted growth and intestinal tumor development. They found that mice genetically modified to be TRPV1-deficient suffered higher-than-normal rates of intestinal tumor growths.–“These results showed us that epithelial TRPV1 normally works as a tumor suppressor in the intestines,” said de Jong. In addition, molecular studies of human colorectal cancer samples recently uncovered multiple mutations in the TRPV1 gene, though Raz noted that currently there is no direct evidence that TRPV1 deficiency is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in humans.–“A direct association between TRPV1 function and human colorectal cancer should be addressed in future clinical studies,” he said.–But if such proves to be the case, the current study suggests one potential remedy might be spicy capsaicin, which acts as an irritant in mammals, generating a burning sensation in contact with tissue. Capsaicin is already broadly used as an analgesic in topical ointments, where its properties as an irritant overwhelm nerves, rendering them unable to report pain for extended periods of time. It’s also the active ingredient in pepper spray. The researchers fed capsaicin to mice genetically prone to developing multiple tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment resulted in a reduced tumor burden and extended the lifespans of the mice by more than 30 percent. The treatment was even more effective when combined with celecoxib, a COX-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug already approved for treating some forms of arthritis and pain.—“Our data suggest that individuals at high risk of developing recurrent intestinal tumors may benefit from chronic TRPV1 activation,” said Raz. “We have provided proof-of-principle.”–Co-authors include Petrus R. de Jong, UCSD Department of Medicine and University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; Naoki Takahashi, UCSD Department of Medicine and Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Japan; Alexandra R. Harris, Jihyung Lee, Samuel Bertin, James Jeffries, Michael Jung, Jen Duong, Amy I. Triano, Jongdae Lee, David S. Herdman, Hui Dong, Lars Eckmann and Maripat Corr, UCSD Department of Medicine; Yaron Niv, Rabin Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, Israel; Koji Taniguchi, UCSD Department of Medicine and Keio University School of Medicine, Japan; Chang-Whan Kim, UCSD Department of Medicine and Catholic University of Korea; Stephanie M Stanford and Nunzio Bottini, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.—This research was supported, in part, by the Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America, the Prins Bernhard Cultural Foundation, the Scholten-Cordes Foundation, the Dr. Hendrick Muller Vaderlandsch Foundation, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the European Molecular Biology Organization, the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, the Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation, the Broad Medical Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (grants AI095623 and DK35108).–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Petrus R. de Jong, Naoki Takahashi, Alexandra R. Harris, Jihyung Lee, Samuel Bertin, James Jeffries, Michael Jung, Jen Duong, Amy I. Triano, Jongdae Lee, Yaron Niv, David S. Herdman, Koji Taniguchi, Chang-Whan Kim, Hui Dong, Lars Eckmann, Stephanie M. Stanford, Nunzio Bottini, Maripat Corr, Eyal Raz. Ion channel TRPV1-dependent activation of PTP1B suppresses EGFR-associated intestinal tumorigenesis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2014; DOI: 10.1172/JCI72340 Suggestions utilize in foods—make a straight extract –using either water or alcohol, and apply it as a remedy straight usage or add to foods ************************************************************************* Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells Cytotoxicity and Inflammatory Effect of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Cells Jeong-shin Park, Na Mi Yu, Jinwoo Cheon and In-Hong Choi Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine; Department of Chemistry; Nanomedical NCRC, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea 1. Approaches to practical toxicology tests to assess nanoparticles 2. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory effects of silver nanoparticles Nanoparticles and toxicity assay The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology will result in exposure of nanoparticles to humans via several routes (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin, etc.). Nanoparticles can translocate from the route of exposure to other vital organs and penetrate cells. • Toxicity studies to determine the deleterious effects of nanoparticles on living cells are required. • Due to the nanosize and the nature of agglomeration, simple standard methods to characterize the biological effects of nanoparticles are currently unavailable. • In this study, practical information regarding the optimal in vitro tests for nanotoxicity were evaluated. Silver nanoparticles 03/19 Antimicrobial applications Ink Cosmetics 200nm 200nm 500nm 20 nm (synthetic) 180 nm (commercial, Aldrich) Biological tests Inflammation ØØ Annexin staining,caspase activation ØØCytokine production,activation of Signaling molecule ØØROS ØØCytotoxicityØØ MTT/CCK-8 ØØ Establishment of in vitro toxicity assay ØØ Identification of mechanisms for toxicity and inflammation Synthesis Production & characterization of physical and chemical properties In vitro tests for nanoparticles ISO/TC229 • OECD • U.S NCL Review in vitro methods • Production of diverse particles (size, surface) • Assess biological activities Assess toxicity tests Understanding of proper methods for nanoparticles Establish proper methods Exposure routes of nanomaterials Skin Respiratory trac Immune System Cell line Origin Characteristics Respiratory A549 Lung epithelial Proper for cytotoxicity BEAS-2B Bronchial epithelial Proper for cytokine Production Immune U937 Macrophage Proper for cytotoxicity and cytokine production Skin SK-Mel Skin epithelial Proper for cytotoxicity and cytokine production A375 Skin epithelial Too fast growing Standard toxicology tests and silver nanoparticles In Vitro Immunology Properties (Blood contact Hemolysis Release of hemoglobin Standard Proper Complement activation Activation of C3 complement Standard Inappropriate Leukocyte proliferation with mitogen stimulation Standard CCK-8 In Vitro Immunology (Cell-based assays) Leukocyte proliferation Zymosan assay Standard Proper Cytokine production Standard Proper Phagocytosis Proper Cytokine induction Toxicity Oxidative stress Detection of ROS Standard CCK-8 Cytotoxicity (necrosis) Cell viability and mitochondrial integrity Standard Annexin-V Cytotoxicity (apoptosis) Activation of caspase 3 Standard Targeting Cell binding/internalization N/S N/S TEM, confocal microscope or other methods Characteristics specific to metal nanomaterials Nanoparticles larger than 100 nm tend to aggregate relatively quickly in vitro when compared to nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm. Fresh samples within two weeks after synthesis is recommended for tests. • Each standard toxicology method must be verified before use. (ex. interference with a specific wavelength, electrophoresis) Flow chart for nanotoxicity tests Small –Nano Particle Size 100nm-Large Small–Analysis Of Biological — Nano Particle Size 100nm – Particle size – Cytotoxicityroperties – Apoptosis – Cytokine production – Hemolysis – Leukocyte proliferation – ROS production Large— Analysis of chemical/physical properties – Aggregation – Particle size Cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles 20 nm– SK-Mel28 (skin) A375 (skin) A549 (lung) Summary In human cells, epithelial cells from skin or lung, and macrophages, 5 nm and 20 nm silver particles induced stronger cytotoxicity and ROS synthesis than 80 nm particles did. • 5 nm and 20 nm silver particles induced chemokine production, mainly IL-8, MIF and RANTES, while proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α were not induced significantly in the same conditions. • Some MAP kinase signaling pathways were activated during exposure to silver nanoparticles at lower —concentrations which do not induce cytotoxicity The toxicity and inflammatory effects of nanoparticles are dependent on their size. In silver nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm induce cytotoxicity significantly in vitro. • Nanoparticles induce inflammatory immune responses at lower concentrations and chemokines are the major cytokines induced at early stages of exposure to silver ************************************************************************ Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012 Mar;12(3):262-8 Authors: Arjunan NK, Murugan K, Rejeeth C, Madhiyazhagan P, Barnard DR Abstract A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1 mM AgNO₃ to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450 nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05).–PMID: 22022807 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Commentary This is alarming —that NanoSilver is being used as a pesticide—the fallout on this on plant life will also have a negative impact on growth as well and this will as well get into the water table for other insects ( beneficial) will also be impacted—the issue here us how do you clean this up—once it is being sprayed and released how do you collect the particles—this is not a good option –nanoparticle do not respond the same way as base metals—this will be a pollutant being added to the eco system causing chain of events—you have to really read this to understand the actual idea of what is transpiring here—if the bugs are being killed and the larva is not happening —then what is that doing to us—when this gets into a crop—with the glyphosates chelating the minerals out and transporting the metals in like the chemtrail fall out then these nano( metals) will also be incorporated and may eventually cause a sterility in the soil since nano silver will kill off the normal bacteria TOP B *********************************************************************** TOP C HOME Show of the Month August 23 2014 Exclusive- NewLink says Ebola vaccine trial could start in weeks Can instant noodles lead to heart disease, diabetes and stroke? Coming soon- Genetically edited ‘super bananas’ and other fruit Brown fat protects against diabetes, obesity in humans Nigella sativa concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV patient NANO CHEMTRAILS ************************************************************************ Exclusive- NewLink says Ebola vaccine trial could start in weeks Wed, Aug 13 2014 By Sharon Begley (Reuters) – NewLink Genetics Corp, which licensed an Ebola vaccine developed by Canadian government scientists, has enough doses on hand to launch the first human safety trial of an Ebola vaccine this summer[F3] , its chief executive said on Wednesday. The company has also lined up two contract manufacturing companies and possibly a third and will be able to produce tens of thousands of vaccine doses within “the next month or two,” Dr Charles Link said in an interview. The largest Ebola outbreak in history, which has killed more than 1,000 people in West Africa[F4] , has lent an unprecedented urgency to efforts to develop vaccines and treatments, which for years had largely languished. -Last week, the Ames, Iowa-based company’s wholly owned subsidiary, BioProtection Systems Corp, received $1 million from the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for more pre-clinical toxicology studies, including stepped-up manufacturing, to allow human trials to begin quickly. The vaccine was developed by scientists at the Public Health Agency of Canada.[F5] “DTRA said, ‘we want this to move quickly,'” Link said. “Before that, I’d have said it would take eight to 10 months before we could launch human studies, but now it’s a matter of weeks.” Only one treatment, made by Tekmira Pharmaceuticals, had even begun human safety trials,[F6] while the others had been tested only in non-human primates[F7] . In addition to NewLink, pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline is awaiting approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to begin a human safety trial of an experimental vaccine, possibly as soon as next month. The World Health Organization said on Tuesday that two experimental Ebola vaccines were set to enter clinical trials in the coming weeks and that there could be enough early-stage data to consider their emergency use late this year. “There is a way to fast-track clinical trials,” WHO Assistant Director-General Marie-Paule Kieny said. WHO’s interest has acted like a starter’s pistol in the race to get Ebola drugs or vaccines into the field. On Wednesday, Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, wrote in an essay in the New England Journal of Medicine that “production scale-up” of ZMapp is under way but will take time. ZMapp is the cocktail of antibodies, produced by Mapp Biopharmaceutical of San Diego, given to two American medical workers who contracted Ebola and were evacuated to Atlanta. Also on Wednesday, Canada’s Tekmira Pharmaceuticals said it was discussing options for its experimental Ebola treatment with governments and other agencies, including the WHO. DISCUSSIONS WITH GOVERNMENT NewLink is attempting to fast-track its clinical trials.–Link said the company does not have to wait for manufacturing to ramp up before launching a safety trial of its vaccine: “We reserved plenty of doses” from ongoing studies in lab animals “to do the first human studies.” The company is in discussions with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Institutes of Health and Walter Reed Army Medical Center about where to conduct that trial and how to recruit volunteers. To get robust data, Link said, the vaccine should be given to between 20 and 100 healthy volunteers, all of whom would give informed consent.[F8] Members of the military as well as medical workers on the front lines of the Ebola outbreak are the most likely participants, Link said. Before the trial can go forward, it needs FDA approval, which he expects to come quickly: “I have never seen the FDA so supportive,” he said. FDA spokeswoman Erica Jefferson said she could not confirm that the agency is in discussions with NewLink. “The FDA is generally not allowed to disclose information about any medical product under development,” she added. At least one site for the human safety trial will be in the United States, Link said. But the possibility of conducting a trial in Africa recruiting medical workers has also been raised in frequent conversations between his company and the CDC, WHO and other agencies. Recruiting volunteers from the U.S. military is also “a distinct possibility,” Link said, given the DTRA support and Walter Reed discussions: “From what I’m hearing, I’m not worried about finding volunteers.” The NewLink vaccine uses an attenuated or weakened virus, a pathogen found in livestock called vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). One of the virus’s genes is replaced by a gene from the Ebola virus. The Ebola gene makes a harmless protein that sits on the virus’s outer coat. The idea is that after[F9] the VSV is injected, the body’s immune system will recognize the Ebola protein as foreign and begin making antibodies that destroy Ebola viruses, all of which have the protein. Link is confident in the vaccine’s safety and efficacy, based on results in monkeys[F10] . Live, attenuated viruses can cause inflammation and other adverse reactions, but that may be deemed worth the risk given Ebola’s high fatality rate. “We’re here to help and do whatever we can” in the disastrous Ebola outbreak, Link said. “My team has been told to get it done tomorrow.” ********************************************************************* Can instant noodles lead to heart disease, diabetes and stroke? Date: August 12, 2014 Source: Baylor Scott & White Health Instant noodle eaters, take heed. Recent Baylor research shows that significant consumption of the convenient food product — ramen included — may increase a person’s risk for cardiometabolic syndrome, especially in women. The findings, recently published in The Journal of Nutrition, could shed new light on the risks of a worldwide dietary habit.–Because ramen consumption is relatively high among Asian populations, the research focused primarily on South Korea, which has the highest per-capita number of instant noodle consumers in the world. In recent years, South Koreans have experienced a rapid increase in health problems, specifically heart disease, and a growing number of overweight adults. Such changes could lead to increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease, as well as increased health care costs.–Baylor’s primary investigator on the study, Hyun Joon Shin, MD, is a clinical cardiology fellow at Baylor University Medical Center and a nutrition epidemiology doctoral student at Harvard School of Public Health.–“While instant noodle intake is greater in Asian communities, the association between instant noodle consumption and metabolic syndrome has not been widely studied,” Dr. Shin said. “I decided to investigate in order to uncover more distinct connections.”–Dr. Shin, who led the study on behalf of the Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital (BHVH), found that eating instant noodles two or more times a week was associated with cardiometabolic syndrome, which raises a person’s likelihood of developing heart disease and other conditions, such as diabetes and stroke.–Dr. Shin also found that those results were more prevalent in women. He said that can likely be attributed to biological differences (such as sex hormones and metabolism) between the sexes, as well as obesity and metabolic syndrome components. In addition, men and women’s varied eating habits and differences in the accuracy of food reporting may play a role in the gender gap.–Another potential factor in the gender difference is a chemical called bisphenol A (BPA), which is used for packaging the noodles in Styrofoam containers. Studies have shown that BPA interferes with the way hormones send messages through the body, specifically estrogen.–Regardless of the gender-related findings or their causes, Dr. Shin said, the study represents the importance of understanding the foods we feed our bodies.–“This research is significant since many people are consuming instant noodles without knowing possible health risks,” Dr. Shin said. “My hope is that this study can lay a foundation for future research about the health effects of instant noodle consumption.”–Dr. Shin added that the study’s health implications could be substantial — particularly if it leads to people choosing healthier foods. Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Baylor Scott & White Health. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-H. J. Shin, E. Cho, H.-J. Lee, T. T. Fung, E. Rimm, B. Rosner, J. E. Manson, K. Wheelan, F. B. Hu. Instant Noodle Intake and Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Distinct Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Korea. Journal of Nutrition, 2014; 144 (8): 1247 DOI: 10.3945/jn.113.188441 ************************************************************************** Coming soon- Genetically edited ‘super bananas’ and other fruit? Date: August 13, 2014 Source: Cell Press Genetically edited fruit[F11] could mean that genetically edited versions of “super bananas” that produce more vitamin A, and apples that don’t brown when cut, could be making an appearance on grocery shelves.-Recent advances that allow the precise editing of genomes now raise the possibility that fruit and other crops might be genetically improved [F12] without the need to introduce foreign genes, according to researchers writing in the Cell Press publication Trends in Biotechnology on August 13th.-With awareness of what makes these biotechnologies new and different, genetically edited fruits might be met with greater acceptance by society at large than genetically modified organisms (GMOs) so far have been, especially in Europe, they say. This could mean that genetically edited versions of GMOs such as “super bananas” that produce more vitamin A and apples that don’t brown when cut, among other novelties, could be making an appearance on grocery shelves.-“The simple avoidance of introducing foreign genes makes genetically edited crops more “natural” than transgenic crops obtained by inserting foreign genes[F13] ,” said Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy of Istituto Agrario San Michele in Italy.-For instance, changes to the characteristics of fruit might be made via small genetic tweaks designed to increase or decrease the amounts of natural ingredients that their plant cells already make[F14] . Genome editing of fruit has become possible today due to the advent of new tools — CRISPR, TALEN, and the like — and also because of the extensive and growing knowledge of fruit genomes.–So far, editing tools have not been applied to the genetic modification of fruit crops.[F15] Most transgenic fruit crop plants have been developed using a plant bacterium to introduce foreign genes, and only papaya has been commercialized in part because of stringent regulation in the European Union (EU). The researchers say that genetically edited plants, modified through the insertion, deletion, or altering of existing genes of interest, might even be deemed as nongenetically modified, depending on the interpretation [F16] of the EU commission and member state regulators.–Fruit crops are but one example of dozens of possible future applications for genetically edited organisms (GEOs), Kanchiswamy and his colleagues say. That would open the door to the development of crops with superior qualities and perhaps allow their commercialization even in countries in which GMOs have so far met with harsh criticism and controversy.–“We would like people to understand that crop breeding through biotechnology is not restricted only to GMOs,” he said. “Transfer of foreign genes was the first step to improve our crops, but GEOs will surge as a “natural” strategy to use biotechnology for a sustainable agricultural future.”-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. –Journal Reference-Chidananda Nagamangala Kanchiswamy, Daniel James Sargent, Riccardo Velasco, Massimo E. Maffei, Mickael Malnoy. Looking forward to genetically edited fruit crops. Trends in Biotechnology, August 2014 DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2014.07.003 ************************************************************************* Brown fat protects against diabetes, obesity in humans Date: July 23, 2014 Source: University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have shown for the first time that people with higher levels of brown fat, or brown adipose tissue, in their bodies have better blood sugar control, higher insulin sensitivity and a better metabolism for burning fat stores.–Their findings suggest that, because of the brown fat’s ability to better regulate blood sugar, this could be a potential medical weapon against diabetes.—-“We showed that exposure to mild cold raised whole body energy expenditure, increased glucose removal from the circulation and improved insulin sensitivity in men who have significant amounts of brown adipose tissue depots,” stated UTMB’s Labros Sidossis, professor of Internal Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine. “These results support the notion that brown adipose tissue may function as an anti-obesity and anti-diabetic tissue in humans.”—People have two types of fat tissue in their bodies: the widely reviled white fat tissue and the less familiar brown fat tissue. One of the many ill health effects of excess white fat tissue is decreased insulin sensitivity, which is a major contributor to diabetes. On the other hand, brown fat has several healthy qualities, including protection against obesity and diabetes.—In their new study appearing in the journal Diabetes, Sidossis and his colleagues compared otherwise similar healthy men with either high or low levels of brown fat tissue on their resting energy expenditure, glucose usage and insulin sensitivity. These men were placed in either normal temperature conditions or were exposed to mildly cold temperatures for five to eight hours.–Throughout the cold or regular temperature exposure period, the team conducted comprehensive analyses of various bodily samples. They collected blood and breath samples to observe changes in glucose and insulin concentrations, hormone changes, whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production rates. They also aspirated brown and white fat tissue samples to analyze differences in cellular energy production and gene expression.—“In this study we show that, when activated via mild cold exposure, brown adipose tissue can increase energy expenditure and burn calories. This is good news for overweight and obese people,” stated Sidossis. “Of even greater clinical significance may be the finding that brown fat can help the body regulate blood sugar more effectively. This is great news for people with insulin resistance and diabetes and suggests that brown fat may prove to be an important anti-diabetic tissue.” Story Source: The above story is based on materials provided by University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Maria Chondronikola, Elena Volpi, Elisabet Børsheim, Craig Porter, Palam Annamalai, Sven Enerbäck, Martin E. Lidell, Manish K. Saraf, Sebastien M. Labbe, Nicholas M. Hurren, Christina Yfanti, Tony Chao, Clark R. Andersen, Fernardo Cesani, Hal Hawkins, and Labros S. Sidossis. Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Whole Body Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Diabetes, July 2014 DOI: 10.2337/db14-0746 1939-327X **************************************************************************** Nigella sativa concoction induced sustained seroreversion in HIV patient. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013;10(5):332-5 Authors: Onifade AA, Jewell AP, Adedeji WA Abstract Nigella sativa had been documented to possess many therapeutic functions in medicine but the least expected is sero-reversion in HIV infection which is very rare despite extensive therapy with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). This case presentation is to highlight the complete recovery and sero-reversion of adult HIV patient after treatment with Nigella sativa concoction for the period of six months. The patient presented to the herbal therapist with history of chronic fever, diarrhoea, weight loss and multiple papular pruritic lesions of 3 months duration. Examination revealed moderate weight loss, and the laboratory tests of ELISA (Genscreen) and western blot (new blot 1 & 2) confirmed sero-positivity to HIV infection with pre-treatment viral (HIV-RNA) load and CD4 count of 27,000 copies/ml and CD4 count of 250 cells/ mm(3) respectively. The patient was commenced on Nigella sativa concoction 10 mls twice daily for 6 months.. He was contacted daily to monitor side-effects and drug efficacy. Fever, diarrhoea and multiple pruritic lesions disappeared on 5th, 7th and 20th day respectively on Nigella sativa therapy. The CD4 count decreased to 160 cells/ mm3 despite significant reduction in viral load (≤1000 copies/ml) on 30th day on N. sativa. Repeated EIA and Western blot tests on 187th day on Nigella sativa therapy was sero-negative. The post therapy CD4 count was 650 cells/ mm(3) with undetectable viral (HIV-RNA) load. Several repeats of the HIV tests remained sero-negative, aviraemia and normal CD4 count since 24 months without herbal therapy. This case report reflects the fact that there are possible therapeutic agents in Nigella sativa that may effectively control HIV infection.-PMID: 24311845 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Recipe—10 mls = 2 tsp 2 times a day **************************************************************************** NANO- CHEMTRAILS NANO CHEMTRAILS by William Thomas If you did not enjoy “traditional” chemtrails raining down on you, you are not going to like the new version, which the United States Air Force promises will feature aerial dumps of programmable “smart” molecules tens of thousands of times smaller than the particles already landing people in emergency rooms with respiratory, heart and gastrointestinal complaints.–Under development since 1995, the military’s goal is to install microprocessors incorporating gigaflops computer capability into “smart particles” the size of a single molecule.–Invisible except under the magnification of powerful microscopes, these nano-size radio-controlled chips are now being made out of mono-atomic gold particles. Networked together on the ground or assembling in the air, thousands of sensors will link into a single supercomputer no larger than a grain of sand.—Brought to you by the same military-corporate-banking complex that runs America’s permanent wars, Raytheon Corp is already profiting from new weather warfare technologies. The world’s fourth largest military weapons maker bought E-Systems in 1995, just one year after that military contractor bought APTI, holder of Bernard Eastlund’s HAARP patents.—Raytheon also owns General Dynamics, the world’s leading manufacturer of military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.–Raytheon also reports the weather for NOAA through its Advanced Weather Information Processing System. According to researcher Brendan Bombaci of Durango, Colorado, these Raytheon computers are directy linked with their UAV weather modification drones. Bombaci reports that NOAA paid Raytheon more than $300 million for this “currently active, 10-year project.”–She goes on to describe the Joint Environmental Toolkit used by the U.S. Air Force in its Weather Weapons System. Just the thing for planet tinkerers. GREEN LIGHT For public consumption, nano-weather control jargon has been sanitized. “Microelectric Mechanical Sensors” (MMS) and “Global Environmental Mechanical Sensors” sound passively benign. But these ultra-tiny autonomous aerial vehicles are neither M&Ms nor gems. [Space.com Oct 31/05]–According to a U.S. military flier called Military Progress, “The green light has been given” to disperse swarms of wirelessly-networked nano-bots into the troposphere by remotely-controlled UAV drones for “global warming mitigation.”—U.S. Army Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, as well as U.S. Air Force drones “are slated to deploy various payloads for weather warfare,” Military Progress asserts. This dual mission – to slow global warming and use weather as a weapon – FIGHTING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE U.S. Military Inc. is already in the climate change business big time. The single biggest burner of petroleum on this planet, its high-flying aircraft routinely rend Earth’s protective radiation shielding with nitrous oxide emissions, while depositing megatons of additional carbon, sulfur and water particles directly into the stratosphere – where they will do three-times more damage than CO2 alone.—Go figure. A single F-15 burns around 1,580 gallons an hour. An Apache gunship gets about one-half mile to the gallon. The 1,838 Abrams tanks in Iraq achieve five gallons to the mile, while firing dusty radioactive shells that will continue destroying human DNA until our sun goes supernova.–A single non-nuclear carrier steaming in support burns 5,600 gallons of bunker fuel in an hour – or two million gallons of bunker oil every 14 days. Every four days, each carrier at sea takes on another half- million gallons of fuel to supply its jets.–The U.S. Air Force consumed nearly half of the Department of Defense’s entire fuel supply in 2006, burning 2.6 billion gallons of jet fuel aloft.—While flying two to five-hour chemtrails missions to reflect incoming sunlight and slow global warming, a single KC-10 tanker will burn 2,050 gallons of highly toxic jet fuel every hour. The larger and older KC-135 Stratotanker carries 31,275 gallons of chemtrails and burns 2,650 gallons of fuel per hour.–The EPA says that each gallon of gasoline produces 19.4 pounds of CO2. Each gallon of diesel produces 22.2 pounds of CO2.–Total it up and routine operations by a military bigger than all other world militaries combined puts more than 48 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year. Nearly half that total could be eliminated by ending the wars against Iraq and Afghanistan. [TomDispatch.com June 16/07; huffingtonpost.com Oct 29/07] NANO RAIN Meanwhile, the 60 year quest for weather warfare continues. Though a drone cannot carry a heavy payload, more sub-microscopic weather modification particles can be crammed into a UAV Predator than all the chemtrail slurry packed into a tanker the size of a DC-10.—According to the air force’s own weather modification study, Owning The Weather 2025, clouds of these extremely teeny machines will be dropped into hurricanes and other weather systems to blend with storms and report real time weather data to each other and a larger sensor network.—Then these smart particles will be used to increase or decrease the storm’s size and intensity – and “steer” it to “specific targets”.—The air force report boasted that nano-chemtrails “will be able to adjust their size to optimal dimensions for a given seeding situation and make adjustments throughout the process.” Instead of being sprayed into the air at the mercy of the winds aloft, as is the fate of normal chemtrails, nano versions will be able to “enhance their dispersal” by “adjusting their atmospheric buoyancy” and “communicating with each other” as they steer themselves in a single coordinated flock within their own artificial cloud.—Nano-chemtrails will even “change their temperature and polarity to improve their seeding effects,[F17] ” the air force noted. [Daily Texan July 30/07]–Rutgers University scientist J. Storrs Hall held out the military’s hope that these new nano weather-warrior bots: “Interconnected, atmospherically buoyant, and having navigation capability in three dimensions – clouds of microscopic computer particles communicating with each other and with a control system, could provide tremendous capability.”–Why so cheap? Because nano particles can be potentially self-replicating. That is, they can be made to reproduce themselves until programmed to stop.–Owning The Weather goes on to say that the USAF will “manage and employ a weather-modification capability by the Weather Force Support Element.” These weather forces will use real-time updates from swarms of the nano-size “smart sensors” to model developing weather patterns with a super-duper computer.–Based on continually updated forecast, the weather warriors will fly follow-on missions as needed to tweak the storm. It’s perfect, crows the air force. “The total weather-modification process becomes “a real-time loop of continuous, appropriate, measured interventions, and feedback capable of producing desired weather behavior.”–Weather modification did not work too well with Katrina.–If the notion of inserting Autonomous Intelligence nanobots into weather systems to monitor, steer and mess with them seems risky, just wait. Around the next cloud corner are coming swarms of airborne nano-bots to optimize wind dispersal patterns for germ warfare. Or chemtrails[F18] .–But there’s one small hitch. Nobody knows how Earth’s atmosphere works. It is so big, so complex and so unpredictable, even real-time nano-snapshots are ancient history as soon as they are taken.–This is why the air force said, “Advances in the science of chaos are critical to this endeavor.”-. After a decade of trying, not even a 48-hour weather forecast can be made without constant surprises.–Because they cannot be graphed in a cause-and-effect straight line, chaotic “non-linear” weather processes can morph unexpectedly, defying predicted weather modification inputs. –Then there’s the matter of accidental genocide. I mean human health. Ailments and Illheath effects The chemtrails we are too familiar with after a decade-long dose continue to inflict eye infections, nosebleeds, skin sores, muscle pain, chronic exhaustion, weakened immunity, acute asthma and allergies, short-term memory loss and heart attacks on people in more than a dozen countries. [americanskywatch.com; Chemtrails Confirmed 2008 by William Thomas]–Small particulates like the aluminum oxide found in chemtrails also kill.–Dr. Dan Woodard calls aluminum oxide a “nuisance dust”. This MD says that prolonged exposures to very high concentrations of particulates that are visible in the air “can produce pulmonary fibrosis, somewhat like the silicosis formerly seen in miners.”–“At one time it was thought to precipitate Alzheimer’s disease, but more recent research has shown it is almost certainly unrelated,” Dr. Woodward adds.-It’s the tiny size of chemtrail fallout – one-tenth the width of the human hair – that make people very ill. The EPA warns that there is a strong link between all tiny particles and thousands of premature deaths each year.–Two key studies from the early 1990′s by the Harvard School of Public Health and the American Cancer Society found strong links between high levels of small particles and a rise in death rates. In an article headlined, “Tiny Particles Can Kill” the August 5, 2000 issue of New Scientist pointed to findings in six cities over 16 years showing that “city-dwellers in Europe and the U.S. are dying young because of microscopic particles in the air.”–According to the New York Times, “microscopic motes… are able to infiltrate the tiniest compartments in the lungs and pass readily into the bloodstream.” Particles in the size range called for by the Welsbach Patent describing chemtrails are “most strongly tied to illness and early death, particularly in people who are already susceptible to respiratory problems.” [New York Times Oct 14/06]–The Welsbach Patent calls for megatons of 10 micron-size aluminum oxide particles to be spread in the atmosphere. The EPA calls particles this small “an extreme human health hazard” leading to 5% increased death rate within 24 hrs.–“Hearts as well as lungs can be damaged by ultra-fine particles small enough to get into the bloodstream and inflame tissues and cells,” reports the LA Times. “After they reach the heart, the particles are thought to cause a stress reaction in cells, producing inflammation that contributes to heart disease. The particles also may cause blood clots.” [Los Angeles Times Dec 29/03]–The Neurotoxicology (brain poisoning) division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says that exposure to airborne Particulate Matter “is an environmental health risk of global proportions.” [Health Risks Of Aerosoled Particulates PubMed Abstract]–The EPA explains that by penetrating deep into the lungs and circulatory system, these dust-size particles “are implicated in tens of thousands of deaths annually from both respiratory and coronary disease.”– “SMART PARTICLES” IN YOUR BRAIN MAKE YOU BRAINDEAD-Nanoparticles might better be called smartparticles because they make a beeline for the brain as soon as they are inhaled. Not surprisingly, they tend to accumulate and clump in the area of the brain that deals with smell. Too big to pass back through the blood-brain barrier, they become trapped there. [Nature.com Jan 5/04][F19] –Dr. Celine Filippi also observed that nanoparticles inhaled into the lungs are so mall they easily cross the lung barrier and enter the blood. “Particles in the blood can reach the liver, amongst other organs.” [globalresearch.ca Oct 21/07] NANO CHEMTRAILS Owning The Weather 2025 was published in 1995 and discussed only non-classified military weather modification projects. Hall’s Overview of Nanotechnology also appeared in 1995, when nanotech was in its Frankenstein infancy. Since then, many sources tell us, nanotech has gone exponential. [nanotech-now.com] Nano Chemtrails Chemtrail Mix “They have them,” he confirmed. The U.S. Air Force has occasionally added nanoparticles to the chemtrail mix to demonstrate proof of concept.–“We’re way beyond science fiction,” Hank confirmed. “You can hide just about anything you want in a chemtrail – including nanotubes[F20] . Chemtrails are being altered for whatever spectrum of wavelength they’re trying to bounce off of them. MORGELLONS What about Morgellons? Is there any connection between this bizarre and frightening malady and nano experiments?”You’re not going to like this. “Morgellons is one unintended manifestation of nano spray experiments.”Morgellons manifests – or presents” – as intolerable itching in the skin followed by alien eruptions of thin hairs or tendrils through the skin. “It’s basically the same as excreting something through a hair follicle,” Hank said.He meant a toxin – something foreign to the body.”If you manufacture a liquid super-cyrstalline structure, vibrate it a little and give it an electrical charge – it will form into a chain.”–[F21] These nanotubes will be invisible to the eye, of course. But their tendency to clump together could eventually make them big enough to be photographed and posted on the web.— “Much of it is still up there,” Hank went on to explain. This is because nanoparticles are so light and small they tend bind to bind with oxygen molecules. And piggybacking on oxygen particles makes them buoyant.–“It travels worldwide,” “Some of it comes down. Whatever it’s exposed to up there it brings down here. We get exposed to it. We breathe it in, we ingest it. It accrues in the same spot every time. And attracts more of it… ” In the liver.- And brain—-“The fallout would look like a prion disease,” Hank said.-“Fallout from nanoparticles would eat holes in our brains?”-“Pretty much. Nano particles are ionized particles that go to what attracts them…. Because of their electro-chemical properties, they are attracted to the potassium-calcium channel in the brain.”–Think about it, he said. “If they are capable of withstanding the corrosive upper atmosphere – corrosive sunlight and all those (industrial) chemicals – what would they have to be manufactured out of? Does the body manufacture anything that can deal with that? Who will come forward and say these are good?[F22] TOP C ************************************************************************** ——————————————————————————– [F1]Utilizing Unpasteurized Milk or fermented milk –not the pasteurized pus they call milk [F2]Approximately 2 oz of whey to 8 oz of water [F3]Now you have to wonder who would be stupid enough to use this—and who are they going to test it on—what test subjects [F4]1000 people—out of how many?? 6 million—how many were infected in one area 367—the balance was in another area—this is not an out break—there have been more people in the usa that have had a supposed AIDS condition then this—this is a total scam [F5]YAY –canada is now in the extermination business [F6]Doesn’t this re assuring?? [F7]WOW only 1 test on Humans and the rest on apes or chimpanzees or monkeys—I feel even less assured [F8]So are we talking Prisoners or Military personnel who will be told the would be there duty to serve the country by protecting people through there sacrifice [F9]In other words –they have no real clue to the actual effect and if it will even work based on the design—big hype and sensation to sell people on a supposed issue that would require a specific environment or a triggering mechanism or possibly a compromised system that would allow this to be viable [F10]Hey the human race is been equated to a monkey—how interesting—there maybe some anatomical similarities—but that is not saying anything [F11]This is still a form of GMO or GE—a play on words—to eliminate certain aspects of the fruit so that others maybe more pronounced—will throw the chemistry of the fruit out of balance and may cause other unwanted side effects from eating this [F12]This was the initial sales on the GMO and GE in the first place—the idea that this would have been more effective and higher yield etc—and it turned out was less productive –more costly –resource intense-non effective—and yet this exploitation and experimentation is still going on—and would not be surprised that the reason for outbreaks happening planet wide is a direct or indirect result of this technology [F13]This is such BS and a lot of double speech—one we are genetically modifying the plant by”editing” lets call it what it really is modifying the original template and reducing or removing something that should be in the plant and adding something else—and they have had such an abysmal record so far this wil cause a depletion in the body—this tampering with genetics will be the undoing of societies and will cause a depletion of vital essentials that may be deemed unnecessary by those who are playing for profit and life control [F14]The question—is how is this going to be done—by inserting a virus —like they did with other crops—the mosaic virus which is so virulent to the plants that there genetic structure is completely written over—and causes a plethora of side effects [F15]This is not accurate they have increased nutrient values with genetics —but there were side effects as well –with rice [F16]So it all boils down to who gets paid off to accept this BS on words [F17]This goes on internally as well as soon as the frequencies activate these nanobots they will infest specific areas of the body—lung tissue—brain—intestines—muscles—they get activated and replicate—in conjunction with the genetics you are consuming this will cause extreme debilitation and depending on age will cause extreme unhealthy— [F18]Already happening [F19]This part of the article is out dated—the nano silver can pass through the blood brain barrier —there are reports that the silver nano has been found to congest in the brain as well [F20]Nanotubes are usually carbon nano fibres that are 200times stronger then diamond and are usually used as some form of conduit [F21]Validating what I have said as well do not use a zapper and frequenciy devices would have to modulate on several different frequencies or a defence mechanism to offset what you throw at it [F22]These are polymers—carbon nanotubes—200times stronger and harder then diamond—we have nothing in the immune system that can break this down—so the only thing to do is flush this out with materials that can enter into the cells where a lot of this concentrates—and to flush out and to restore what the chemtrails displace ******************************************************************************************************************************************************* TOP D HOME Show of the Month August 30 2014 Transformations of Nanomaterials in the Environment Onion extract structural changes during in vitro digestion and its potential antioxidant effect on brain lipids Hot bath for the treatment of chronic renal failure Antioxidant and anti-cancer cell proliferation activity of propolis extracts from two extraction methods Environmental Transformations of Silver Nanoparticles- Impact on Stability and Toxicity ************************************************************************* Transformations of Nanomaterials in the Environment † Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States ‡ Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States § Contaminant Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Program, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee NSW 2232, Australia School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, U.K. # Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (13), pp 6893–6899 DOI: 10.1021/es300839e Publication Date (Web): May 14, 2012 Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society *E-mail: [email protected] This article is part of the Transformations of Nanoparticles in the Environment special issue. Biography Greg Lowry is a Professor of Environmental Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA and Deputy Director of the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT). Kelvin Gregory is an Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University. Simon Apte leads the Contaminant Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Program at CSIRO Land and Water, Sydney Australia. Jamie Lead is Professor of Environmental Nanoscience at the University of Birmingham, UK, and Professor of Environmental Nanoscience and Risk at the University of South Carolina, USA. Air Pollution and Industrial Hygiene Abstract Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials with novel properties relative to their bulk counterparts has generated a need to define their behaviors and impacts in the environment. The high surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles results in highly reactive and physiochemically dynamic materials in environmental media. Many transformations, e.g. reactions with biomacromolecules, redox reactions, aggregation, and dissolution, may occur in both environmental and biological systems. These transformations and others will alter the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials. The nature and extent of these transformations must be understood before significant progress can be made toward understanding the environmental risks posed by these materials. Introduction ——————————————————————————– The nanotechnology field continues to grow rapidly and the increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) in commercial products translates into an increasing presence in the biosphere. Engineered NMs are manufactured materials having at least one dimension in the nanoscale (ca. 1–100 nm) dimension. Naturally occurring NMs are also ubiquitous in the environment, resulting from both natural processes and from anthropogenic impacts (e.g., flocculation of nanometer-scale metal oxides in acid mine drainage). The extremely small sizes of both naturally occurring and engineered NMs results in a high percentage of surface atoms which can result in novel properties and reactivity compared to a larger size material with the same chemical composition.(1, 2) Examples of such engineered NMs include semiconductors like quantum dots which have different optical and electrical properties depending on their size,(3) and gold nanoparticles (NPs) that are typically inert but become catalytic as their size is decreased to a few nanometers.(4) NMs are becoming increasingly complex and include those with coatings that target specific cells in the body(5) or that are engineered from more than one NM for optimized utility (e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs) doped with quantum dots(6)). These newly emergent materials that will soon enter manufacturing supply chains are unique and xenobiotic (e.g., metal oxide NP-decorated graphene sheets(7)). The lack of a natural analog for these new materials complicates the forecasting of their fate, transport, reactivity and toxicity in environmental systems. The uncertain effects resulting from the novel properties exhibited by NMs have given rise to concerns by citizens and governments throughout the world, and a justified increase in environmental health and safety (EHS) research aimed at assessing the potential for NMs to harm the environment or human health. An overall goal of these research activities is to correlate the properties of NMs to their behavior in the environment and their effects on living organisms.(8) Assessing the environmental and human health implications of nanomaterials requires an understanding of the potential exposure routes and toxicological effects from acute and chronic exposures. To date, the predominant focus of the global research endeavor has been defining the fate, transport, and toxic properties of pristine or “as manufactured” nanomaterials. However, the high surface to volume ratio and reactivity of NMs makes them highly dynamic in environmental systems. The resulting transformations of the NMs will affect their fate, transport, and toxic properties. For example, metallic silver NPs will oxidize and may become sulfidized in the environment.(9) Sulfidation of the particles changes their aggregation state, surface chemistry, and charge, as well as their ability to release toxic Ag+ ions(10) and therefore their persistence and toxicity. Similarly, the interaction between NMs and humic substances (HS) including natural organic matter (NOM) results in a nanoscale coating of the NMs,(11) analogous to protein coronas in mammalian systems,(12) that dramatically changes their aggregation, deposition, and toxic properties.(13, 14)–Because environmental systems are dynamic and stochastic, the physicochemical changes that accompany engineered and incidental coatings, as well as subsequent reactions in the environment, greatly complicate the understanding of risks associated with the release of NMs in the environment. We currently lack sufficient knowledge of the types, rates, and extent of transformations expected for NMs in environmental and biological systems. By extension, we also fail to understand the impact of those transformations on the fate, transport, and toxicity of NMs. To correctly forecast the environmental and human health risks associated with these materials, we must endeavor to broaden our knowledge of the transformations of NMs. The U.S. National Research Council has recently proposed a new framework for nano EHS research.(8) This committee recommended that research should focus on understanding “critical elements of nanomaterial interactions”, needed for assessing exposure, hazards, and hence risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (Figure 1). These critical elements include physical, chemical, and biological transformations that ultimately influence NM persistence, bioavailability/biouptake, reactivity, and toxicity. Figure 1. Nanomaterial transformations are critical processes affecting NM interactions. Transformations include physical and chemical transformations, biologically mediated transformations, and interactions with macromolecules and biomacromolecules. Adapted from ref 8. Oxidation and reduction (redox) reactions, dissolution, sulfidation, aggregation, and adsorption of macromolecules and molecules/ions all readily occur in the environment and in biological systems. These transformations greatly impact NM behavior. In some cases, these transformations may enhance toxicity potential (e.g., chemical weathering of the shell of a Cd–Se quantum dot that releases toxic ions from the particle core).(15) In other cases, these transformations have been shown to decrease effects (e.g., adsorption of NOM decreased the short-term bactericidal effects of C60, Ag NPs, and Fe(0) NPs,(13, 14, 16) but increased bioaccumulation(17)[F1] ). Some transformations can potentially limit NM persistence in the environment (e.g., dissolution of ZnO NPs).(18) There is still a great deal of uncertainty about the role that transformations have on both exposure and biological effects across the whole life cycle of NMs.—-Nanomaterials are commonly produced with an organic capping agent or stabilizer, often a small anion or polymer (Table 1). Transformations of the material can therefore affect the core material, the capping agent, or both.[F2] For example, the simple coordination of ZnS nanoparticles (NPs) with water molecules can alter their crystalline phase and properties.(19) The capping agent may be bioavailable and removed by bacteria.(20) Indeed, the rate, extent, and type of transformations possible will depend on the properties of the initial NM, its coating, and its surrounding chemical and biological environment. Importantly, many transformations are slow or effectively irreversible and cannot necessarily be predicted using thermodynamics.[F3] Here, we briefly review what is known about chemical, physical, and biologically mediated transformations of NMs in natural systems and their effects on the resulting NM behavior. We also discuss state-of-the-science knowledge and instrumentation gaps preventing us from quantifying and predicting these transformations in biological and environmental media. Table 1. Representative Nanomaterials and Capping Agents/Coatings typical capping agents/coatings nanomaterial inorganic and small organic molecules synthetic and organic macromolecules zinc oxide 2-mercaptoethanol, triethoxycarprylsilane, triethanolamine, acetate polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polysaccharides, silver citrate, decanethiol, tannic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) polyethylene glycol (PEG), PVP, gum arabic gold citrate, octanethiol, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), cysteine, tannic acid biotin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), polypeptides cerium oxide oleic acid PVP, poly(acrylic acid)-octyl amine titanium dioxide oleic acid Poly(acrylic acid) quantum dots (CdSe, CdS) Silica (inorganic), zinc sulfide (inorganic), citrate, mercaptopropionic acid PEG, aminodextran iron oxide dodecylamine, oleic acid BSA, poly(acrylic acid), poly(methacrylic acid), PEG zerovalent iron (ZVI) Au, Pd, Pt, Ni carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, polypropylene glycol NM Transformations and Their Effect on NM Behavior ——————————————————————————– Chemical Transformations (Figure 2a) Reduction and oxidation are coupled processes in natural systems and involve the transfer of electrons to and from chemical moieties. A number of NMs may be composed of or contain constituents that undergo reduction, oxidation, or both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. These include elemental metal NMs such as silver(21, 22) and iron.(23) Ceria NPs can contain both Ce(III) and Ce(IV) and subsequent sorption of macromolecules can alter the ratio of Ce(III)/Ce(IV) on the NP surface.(24) The sulfur and selenium in some metal sulfides and metal selenides, major components of quantum dots, are also susceptible to oxidation that may release soluble toxic metal ions such as Cd.(2, 25) In some cases, oxidation may result in the accumulation of a relatively insoluble oxide surface coating on the NP that passivates the surface and reduces subsequent oxidation, while also forming metal-oxide phases with a high capacity for binding ions from solution. In other cases, (e.g., Ag NPs), oxidation of Ag(0) to Ag(I) is required to dissolve and release bactericidal Ag+.(22) Natural waters and aerated soils are predominantly oxidizing environments, while carbon-rich sediments and groundwater may be depleted of oxygen and result in NM reduction. In dynamic redox environments such as tidal zones one may well encounter cycling of NMs between different redox states.—Sunlight-catalyzed redox reactions (photooxidation and photoreduction) may prove to be very important transformation processes affecting NM coatings, oxidation state, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and persistence. The oxidation and mineralization of fullerenes dispersed in water by natural sunlight may attenuate carbon-based nanomaterials.(26) Sunlight exposure caused the degradation of gum arabic coatings on Ag NPs and induced aggregation and sedimentation from solution.(27) Many NMs will be innately photoactive (e.g., TiO2 and CNTs), potentially producing ROS when exposed to sunlight.(28) Others may be oxidized or reduced by sunlight, changing their redox state, charge, and therefore potential for toxicity.-Dissolution and sulfidation are important processes affecting NP surface properties, toxicity, and persistence. This is especially true for NMs made from Class B soft metal cations (e.g., Ag, Zn, and Cu) because they form partially soluble metal-oxides, and because they have a strong affinity for inorganic and organic sulfide ligands. Class B metal NMs commonly express toxicity through dissolution and release of toxic cations, such that persistence is reduced but toxicity is increased.[F4] Complete dissolution may allow prediction of their impact using existing models for metal speciation and effects. However, Class B metals’ affinities for electron-dense sulfur molecules make them highly reactive with sulfur-containing biomacromolecules and inorganic sulfur in sediments, soils, and air. Formation of a relatively insoluble metal-sulfide shell on the particle surface can alter the surface charge and induce aggregation.(10) Determining the particle properties (e.g., particle size, capping agent, etc.) and environmental conditions (redox state and availability of free sulfide) that affect their dissolution and/or sulfidation rates are important for assessing their potential to release toxic metal cations, and their ultimate toxicity(29) and persistence in the environment.(30)–Adsorption of macromolecules or organic and inorganic ligands on NM surfaces can significantly affect their surface chemistry and resulting behavior in biological and environmental systems. For example, adsorption of polymer coatings on NPs generally decreases their attachment to silica surfaces, suggesting greater mobility in the environment and potentially less effective removal in drinking water treatment.(31)[F5] Adsorption of biomacromolecules is a particularly important transformation and is treated separately below. Adsorption of organic ligands or metal cations or oxo-anions can occur on either the surface of the core NM or within the organic macromolecular coating of the particle. Organic ligands, such as those containing thiol groups may affect NM dissolution, charge, and stability against aggregation.(32, 33) Organics present in the atmosphere can also condense onto airborne NMs, altering their surface chemistry.(34) Understanding the effects of organic ligands and adsorbed cocontaminants on NM toxicity is needed to fully assess the potential for harm. Figure 2. (a) Representative chemical transformations of metal nanomaterials and the potential impacts on their behavior and effects in the environment. AgNPs are used to exemplify the types of transformations that may occur. The magnitude of arrows approximately correlates with potential for these processes to occur as determined from the limited data available on these processes. (b) Effects of physical transformations including aggregation and heteroaggregation on the reactivity and transport of nanomaterials. The magnitude of arrows approximately correlates with potential for these processes to occur as determined from the limited data available on these processes. (c) Biologically mediated transformations of nanomaterials and their coatings, and the subsequent impact on fate, transport, and effects. Arrows do not indicate the relative potential for these processes to occur due to the limited data currently available for that assessment. (d) Effects of nanomaterial interactions with macromolecules such as proteins and natural organic matter. Adsorbed macromolecules can affect aggregation, nanoparticle-biointeractions, biouptake, and fate, transport, and effects in the environment. Arrows do not indicate the relative potential for these processes to occur due to the limited data currently available for that assessment. Physical Transformations (Figure 2b) Aggregation of NPs reduces the surface area to volume effects on NM reactivity. This increase in aggregate size in turn affects their transport in porous media, sedimentation, reactivity, uptake by organisms, and toxicity. Over time, aggregation of NPs into clusters is inevitable without engineered or incidental coatings to decrease aggregation. Aggregation may take on two forms: homoaggregation between the same NMs, or heteroaggregation between a NM and another particle in the environment. In most cases, the greater concentration of environmental particles compared to NMs will result in heteroaggregation. Where aggregation occurs, the number concentration of NMs in the suspension decreases, with a concomitant increase in their effective (aggregate) size. For example, 30–70 nm diameter Fe(0) NPs rapidly aggregate in water to form micrometer-sized aggregates,(35) greatly decreasing their mobility in the subsurface and likely pathways of exposure to sensitive receptors. Heteroaggregation between NMs and comparatively larger particles (e.g., clay) could change NM behavior if the NM–clay heteroaggregates ultimately move more like a clay particle that the NM.(36) Aggregation can also decrease the “available” surface area of the materials, thereby decreasing reactivity[F6] . However, the decrease in specific surface area will depend on particle number, size distribution, and the fractal dimensions of the aggregate.(37) Aggregation can therefore decrease toxicity when the toxic response is a result of a surface area-mediated reaction such as ROS generation or dissolution. Aggregation may also serve to increase the persistence of the NM if aggregation decreases the rate of dissolution or degradation, albeit in a different location compared to the dispersed NPs. The size of a NP may also affect its bioavailability to organisms. When aggregates or heteroaggregates become too large for direct transport across the cell wall and/or membrane, uptake may be prevented. Phagocytosis and similar mechanisms may also be affected. Conversely, heteroaggregation with soft biogenic particles might increase NM bioavailability (e.g., uptake by filter feeders who preferentially remove larger particles). Delineating the effects of aggregation on uptake and any subsequent toxicity will be challenging since it is a dynamic process, uptake will be highly dependent on both the species examined and its aqueous chemical environment and metabolic state, and because instruments for tracking NMs in situ or in vivo are lacking. Biologically Mediated Transformations (Figure 2c) Biological transformations of NMs are inevitable in living tissues (both intracellular and extracellular) and environmental media (e.g., soils). [F7] Redox reactions are fundamental to growth in all biological systems. These reactions take place in the cytoplasm, cell wall, cell membrane, and extracellularly via redox-labile enzymes and cytochromes or through ancillary intracellular ROS production such as hydroxyl radicals or H2O2. The redox reactions between bacteria and naturally occurring, nanoscale iron oxide are well understood.(38) Moreover, bacteria such as Geobacter and Shewanella spp. were recently demonstrated to produce nanoscale silver particles by reduction of Ag+ from solution.(39) Biologically mediated transformations of both the underlying NM core and the coatings are possible, and these transformations can affect the behavior of the NMs including surface charge, aggregation state, and reactivity, which ultimately can affect transport, bioavailability, and toxicity. The oxidation and carboxylation of CNTs by OH radicals produced from the horseradish peroxidase enzyme has been demonstrated.(40) This oxidation increases the surface charge of the CNTs and stability against aggregation while decreasing hydrophobicity. Moreover, this biological oxidation and surface functionalization may affect the toxic potential of CNTs.(41) Biotransformation of polymer coatings used on many NMs for biomedical applications is also feasible.[F8] Covalently bound poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings on engineered NMs, for instance, were shown to be bioavailable to microorganisms isolated from an urban stream.(20) Moreover, the biotransformation of the PEG coating caused the NMs to aggregate. Biological transformations of NMs, especially carbon-based ones, and their organic coatings may ultimately act to attenuate their concentrations in the environment or to affect transport, but it remains to be seen if these processes occur at rates that are high enough to be important. Perhaps the most critical biotransformation of NMs is adsorption of biomacromolecules on their surfaces as discussed next. ********************************************************************** Statins and Mitochondrial Side Effects From the viewpoint of side effect causation there are two primary effects of statins. The first is what this class of drugs was designed for – inhibition of cholesterol synthesis through inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. – The second has to do with the other consequences of mevalonate blockade – cellular dysfunction brought on primarily by reduction of CoQ10 and dolichols. –There are many, many other consequences of mevalonate blockade, but the two effects alluded to above designate those having the most important and disastrous clinical consequences. –Most clinicians should now be well aware that to lower cholesterol is to cause cognitive dysfunction. Over 7,000 reports of transient global amnesia (TGA) have been reported to FDA via Medwatch just for the single statin, Lipitor, and TGA is just the tip of the iceberg of true clinical effects from cholesterol lowering. –My focus on this article is that other main group of side effects, those due to the other consequences of mevalonate pathway inhibition – CoQ10 and dolichols. These effects strike at the very heart of cellular function our mitochondria that create the energy for the cells in our bodies.-A report by a research group in France – F. Galtier and others – titled Effects of high dose statins on muscular mitochondrial metabolism (Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 28 June 2012) highlighted the effects of statins on mitochndria. -Nearly a decade ago I postulated a mitochondrial DNA origin to statin damage. This French study appeals because it is current and clear-cut. Twenty-four healthy male subjects were used. Half received simvastatin (Zocor) 80 mg daily for 8 weeks. The remaining half took placebo. Blood, urine and a stress test were done at baseline and at follow-up 8 weeks later and studies of mitochondrial oxidative function were done on muscle biopsies taken 4 days before the second stress test. –The results were analyzed and compared documenting that the statin induced muscle toxicity was directly related to mitochondrial oxidation. The reduction of CoQ10 and dolichols by the use of the statin had led to excess mitochondrial oxidation. –Most of us have no awareness of just how critical CoQ10 is to our function. After the age of 50 we become increasingly unable to synthesize it and must depend almost entirely on what we take in by mouth. Since dietary CoQ10 is usually completely inadequate, supplements become the mainstay of CoQ10 function as we age (the richest dietary sources are foods not widely eaten like hearts from cows, lambs, pigs and chickens). –Even on our best days, mitochondrial mutations occur by the tens of thousands. They are an inevitable consequence of normal metabolic activity. The “reactive oxygen species” (ROS) such as peroxidases and hydroxyl radicals, are produced as a byproduct of metabolism, and desperately seek electrons to balance their electrical state. — It is this “stealing” of electrons from adjacent tissue, including DNA strands, that causes the damage. We have evolved a very efficient anti-oxidative system for the purpose of minimizing this electron theft. Included in this system are such enzymes as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and such non-enzymatic substances as coenzyme Q10 and vitamins C and E. [F9] Although CoQ10 has plenty of help in its anti-oxidant role, I stress CoQ10’s special importance because of its location within the mitochondria as a vital component of both complex one and complex two of the mitochondria’s electron transfer sequence. What better location for the job at hand than being physically there, where the action is occurring. –CoQ10 is not only a vital component in this process of energy formation, it is also superbly placed for its powerful anti-oxidant function. In concert with the other members of this protective system, CoQ10 suffices to keep oxidative damage to a minimum. –The DNA lesions that finally occur after the neutralizing effects of our legions of anti-oxidant warriors are then identified and corrected by another protective system of amazing efficiency. Tens of thousands of DNA lesions occur daily despite all our anti-oxidant system can do. This is a sobering reality of the constant skirmish for change, seeking the best solution for meeting environmental differences. –Fortunately most of these errors never make it beyond the next cell division, at which point they are replaced naturally by normal configurations. But the gradual buildup of these DNA errors can result in progressive loss of functional DNA, the usual cause of chronic disease and aging. –Most of the serious damage is to our bases, those four amino acids: adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine, comprising our DNA strands. Some of the oxidative damage can be reversed simply by direct chemical means. –Far more important to us is the base excision repair process, in which faulty bases must be excised and replaced by correct ones. This is one of the major repair requirements, occurring tens of thousands of times daily and each one requiring a specific glycohydrolase. –Since glycohydrolase is one of our ubiquitous glycoproteins, requiring dolichols for synthesis, one must consider the possibility of altered glycohydrolase availability with statin use because of the well-known tendency of statins to inhibit dolichols along with CoQ10. –Please understand that the effect I am writing about is not some rare, remotely possible event. Mevalonate blockade of varying degrees is inevitable when statins are used. Although every cell in our bodies is affected by reductase inhibition those cells having greater need of energy such as muscle and heart cells, kidney and liver will be affected more. –The only escape from the consequences of this inhibition is the presence of pathway alternatives to the usual mevalonate one for synthesis of CoQ10, dolichols or even cholesterol. Serum cholesterol occasionally does not respond to statin use, suggesting the presence of alternative pathways for synthesis. If this is true for cholesterol, it is true for all other biochemicals equally dependent upon the mevalonate pathway. –Other than for these considerations, mevalonate blockade is inevitable with statin use and is the cause of the overwhelming majority of adverse reactions. The consequence of CoQ10 and dolichol inhibition is mitochondrial damage. It is inescapable and every MD using or recommending these drugs needs to understand this. ************************************************************************* Onion extract structural changes during in vitro digestion and its potential antioxidant effect on brain lipids obtained from low- and high-fat-fed mice. Free Radic Res. 2013 Dec;47(12):1009-15 Authors: Hur SJ, Lee SJ, Kim DH, Chun SC, Lee SK Abstract This study investigated the effects of onion (Allium cepa, L.) extract on the antioxidant activity of lipids in low-and high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids and its structural change during in vitro human digestion. The onion extracts were passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of the mouth, stomach, and small intestine juice. The brain lipids were collected from low- and high-fat-fed mouse brain and then incubated with the in vitro-digested onion extracts to determine the lipid oxidation. The results confirmed that the main phenolics of onion extract were kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, and quercitrin. The quercetin content increased with digestion of the onion extract. Antioxidant activity was strongly influenced by in vitro human digestion of both onion extract and quercetin standard. After digestion by the small intestine, the antioxidant activity values were dramatically increased, whereas the antioxidant activity was less influenced by digestion in the stomach for both onion extract and quercetin standard. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract in mouse brain lipids increased after digestion in the stomach. The inhibitory effect of lipid oxidation of onion extract was higher in the high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in the low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. The major study finding is that the antioxidative effect of onion extract may be higher in high-fat-fed mouse brain lipids than that in low-fat-fed mouse brain lipids. Thus, dietary onion may have important applications as a natural antioxidant agent in a high-fat diet.–PMID: 24074442 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] *********************************************************************** Hot bath for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Ren Fail. 2014 Feb;36(1):126-30 Authors: Ye T, Tu W, Xu G Abstract BACKGROUND: Dialysis and its complications were debated recently. There was lack of an adjuvant renal replacement method to reduce the complications of patients with chronic renal failure and dialysis itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article, we reviewed the role of thermal sweating in treating of the patients with chronic renal failure, and the role of traditional Chinese medicine in the therapy of chronic kidney diseases. RESULTS: Thermal sweating can reduce interdialytic weight gain and improve the patients’ blood pressure; Chinese herbal medicine can promote the excretion of uremic toxicities and relieve the skin disorders of these patients.-CONCLUSIONS: Traditional Chinese medicine-mediated hot bath could be one of the adjuvant renal replacement methods.–PMID: 24060101 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] ************************************************************************* Antioxidant and anti-cancer cell proliferation activity of propolis extracts from two extraction methods. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(11):6991-5 Authors: Khacha-ananda S, Tragoolpua K, Chantawannakul P, Tragoolpua Y Abstract Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, total flavonoid compounds and cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of propolis extracts from two extraction methods were investigated in this study. Propolis was collected from Phayao province and extracted with 70% ethanol using maceration and sonication techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were also determined. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of propolis was evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage propolis yield after extraction using maceration (18.1%) was higher than using sonication (15.7%). Nevertheless, antioxidant and flavonoid compounds of the sonication propolis extract were significant greater than using maceration. Propolis extract from sonication showed antioxidant activity by 3.30 ± 0.15 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Total phenolic compound was 18.3 ± 3.30 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and flavonoid compound was 20.49 ± 0.62 mg quercetin/g extract. Additionally, propolis extracts from two extraction methods demonstrated the inhibitory effect on proliferation of A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines at 24, 48 and 72 hours in a dose-dependent manner. These results are of interest for the selection of the most appropriate method for preparation of propolis extracts as potential antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID: 24377638 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] ************************************************************************* Environmental Transformations of Silver Nanoparticles- Impact on Stability and Toxicity Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46 (13), pp 6900–6914 DOI: 10.1021/es2037405 Publication Date (Web): February 16, 2012 Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society *Phone: 650-723-7513. E-mail: [email protected] This article is part of the Transformations of Nanoparticles in the Environment special issue. Abstract Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) readily transform in the environment, which modifies their properties and alters their transport, fate, and toxicity. It is essential to consider such transformations when assessing the potential environmental impact of Ag-NPs. This review discusses the major transformation processes of Ag-NPs in various aqueous environments, particularly transformations of the metallic Ag cores caused by reactions with (in)organic ligands, and the effects of such transformations on physical and chemical stability and toxicity. Thermodynamic arguments are used to predict what forms of oxidized silver will predominate in various environmental scenarios. Silver binds strongly to sulfur (both organic and inorganic) in natural systems (fresh and sea waters) as well as in wastewater treatment plants, where most Ag-NPs are expected to be concentrated and then released[F10] . Sulfidation of Ag-NPs results in a significant decrease in their toxicity due to the lower solubility of silver sulfide, potentially limiting their short-term environmental impact. This review also discusses some of the major unanswered questions about Ag-NPs, which, when answered, will improve predictions about their potential environmental impacts. Research needed to address these questions includes fundamental molecular-level studies of Ag-NPs and their transformation products, particularly Ag2S-NPs, in simplified model systems containing common (in)organic ligands, as well as under more realistic environmental conditions using microcosm/mesocosm-type experiments. Toxicology studies of Ag-NP transformation products, including different states of aggregation and sulfidation, are also required. In addition, there is the need to characterize the surface structures, compositions, and morphologies of Ag-NPs and Ag2S-NPs to the extent possible because they control properties such as solubility and reactivity. Citing Articles 158 citations to this article are listed below, sorted in reverse-chronological order. Citation data is made available by participants in CrossRef’s Cited-by Linking service. For a more comprehensive list of citations to this article, users are encouraged to perform a search in SciFinder. G. Artiaga, K. Ramos, L. 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Alvarez Nano Letters 2012, 12 (8), 4271-4275 [Supporting Info] [ACS Full Text ] [PDF (2420 KB)] [PDF w/ Links (361 KB)] TOP D ——————————————————————————– [F1]So the concept that it all can come out is not entirely active and is in severe error and in the bioacumaltion is where you wind up with compromises on the bodily functions as well as environmental issues [F2]Morphology of the components [F3]Interesting –this would be contingent on what polymer they used—what type of protein or ligand was used as well [F4]SO the toxic effect of silver –zinc and copper in there nano format would be in there being dissolved –and as they are being dissolved they release there toxicity [F5]Water may need to be double or tripled filtered [F6]In other words shutting down normal biology or bioactivity [F7]Living tissues—would be anything that is living [F8]Coatings—polymers may in fact increase the spreading of infestation in life forms [F9]So these should be utilized in order to offset the breaking down on the muscles and organs [F10]The Removal Of NanoSilver would require Sulphur—STS-MSM-NAC-METHIONINE-TAURINE-ALPHA LIPOIC ACID—GARLIC-ONION—LEEK—CHIVES-DMSO or any supplements that has sulpur in them will bind with this and remove them