Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – January 14th 2015

Tony Pantallaresco

Welcome to Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – January 17th 2015

In this weeks show, Tony discuses:

Viruses may play unexpected role in inflammatory bowel diseases

More than just bacteria— Importance of microbial diversity in gut health, disease

Glyphosate- tolerances for residues

Damaged DNA amplified by activities such as smoking

Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle

Cellular Pentration with silver nanoparticles toxic to Cells

How silver turns people blue

More dangerous chemicals in everyday life- Now experts warn against nanosilver

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Viruses may play unexpected role in inflammatory bowel diseases
Date:

January 22, 2015

Source:

Washington University in St. Louis

Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with a decrease in the diversity of bacteria in the gut, but a new study led by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has linked the same illnesses to an increase in the diversity of viruses.–The scientists found that patients with inflammatory bowel diseases had a greater variety of viruses in their digestive systems than healthy volunteers, suggesting viruses likely play a role in the diseases.–The research appears online Jan. 22 in Cell and in the journal’s print edition on Jan. 29.–Scientists only recently started recognizing the role of the microbiome — the bacteria in and on the body, and the bacteria’s genes — in illness. For example, changes in the gut microbiome have been linked to obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases[F1] .–The new research is the first to associate disease with changes in the virome, or the viruses in the human body and their genes. According to the researchers, the results raise the possibility that viruses may have unrecognized roles in obesity and diabetes and the two most common inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.–The findings suggest that scientists should be studying the virome as closely as the microbiome, said senior author Herbert W. Virgin IV, MD, PhD.–“This is the tip of the iceberg,” he said. “A significant portion of the viral DNA we identified in these patients is unfamiliar to us — it comes from newly identified viruses we don’t know much about[F2] . We have a great deal of groundwork to do, including sequencing the genetic material of these viruses and learning how they interact with the gut and gut bacteria, before we can determine if changes in the virome cause these conditions or result from them.”-The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that inflammatory bowel diseases affect about 1 million people in the United States. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are thought to involve misdirected immune attacks on gut tissue and can lead to weight loss, bleeding in the gut and rectum, and loss of appetite. Surgery to remove part of the bowel is often necessary to treat Crohn’s disease.–Virgin and his colleagues studied three groups of patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis living in Chicago, Boston and the United Kingdom. In each group, they compared viral DNA purified from the feces of participants with viral DNA from the feces of healthy people living in the same areas and, in some cases, the same homes.–“Much of the increased viral diversity in participants with inflammatory bowel diseases was in the form of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect bacteria and can incorporate themselves into the bacteria’s genetic material[F3] ,” said Virgin, the Edward Mallinckrodt Professor of Pathology and head of the Department of Pathology and Immunology.–Changes in the gut that eliminate bacteria in inflammatory bowel diseases may unleash bacteriophages in the dying bacteria, Virgin speculated. Or the introduction of a new bacteriophage to the gut, perhaps through the foods in a person’s diet, may trigger a reaction in the digestive system or the microbiome that causes the disorders[F4] , he said. It’s also possible that a combination of these mechanisms may contribute.–To develop better treatments for inflammatory bowel diseases, scientists need to learn more about how the gut microbiome and the gut virome interact with a patient’s genes[F5] .–“We know that mutations in human genes affect the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases, and scientists also are exploring how bacterial genes may influence risk,” Virgin said. “Our results show that the virome’s potential effects on the gut also need to be a part of these investigations.”–The researchers are developing an animal model of inflammatory bowel diseases to make it possible to determine whether human, bacterial or viral genes, or some mixture of all three, are driving these illnesses.—-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Washington University in St. Louis. The original article was written by Michael C. Purdy. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Jason M. Norman, Scott A. Handley, Megan T. Baldridge, Lindsay Droit, Catherine Y. Liu, Brian C. Keller, Amal Kambal, Cynthia L. Monaco, Guoyan Zhao, Phillip Fleshner, Thaddeus S. Stappenbeck, Dermot P.B. McGovern, Ali Keshavarzian, Ece A. Mutlu, Jenny Sauk, Dirk Gevers, Ramnik J. Xavier, David Wang, Miles Parkes, Herbert W. Virgin. Disease-Specific Alterations in the Enteric Virome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Cell, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.002

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More than just bacteria— Importance of microbial diversity in gut health, disease
Date:

March 10, 2014

Source:

American Gastroenterological Association

The gut microbiota contains a vast number of microorganisms from all three domains of life, including bacteria, archaea and fungi, as well as viruses. These interact in a complex way to contribute towards both health and the development of disease — interactions that are only now being elucidated thanks to the application of advanced DNA sequencing technology in this field.–“Using novel metagenomic approaches, scientists are at last beginning to characterize the taxonomic abundance and community relationships not only of bacteria, but also the other microbes that inhabit the gut environment,”1 says Professor Gary Wu, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. “This exciting work is bringing us one step closer to understanding the importance of microbial diversity in intestinal health and disease and could ultimately lead to new ways of diagnosing and treating gastrointestinal (GI) disease.”–His talk was one of the topics presented at the Gut Microbiota for Health World Summit in Miami, FL, USA. On March 8-9, 2014, internationally leading experts discussed the latest advances in gut microbiota research and its impact on health.–The microorganisms that inhabit the gut can be broadly divided into prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), bacteriophages (viruses that infect prokaryotes), eukaryotic viruses, and the meiofauna (microscopically small benthic invertebrates that live in both marine and fresh water environments — primarily fungi and protozoa).1 Of these, bacteria have been the most extensively studied. The gastrointestinal tract is now considered one of the most complex microbial ecosystems on earth and understanding how the multiple communities interact presents both opportunities and challenges.–“We have known for some time that the bacteria in the gut play an important role in both health and disease,” says Prof. Wu. “It is also now becoming clear that the non-bacterial microbiota interacts in a complex way with the bacterial microbiota to contribute to these processes.”

Viruses in the gut—The most common viruses in the gut are the bacteriophages. These rapidly-evolving viruses can outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10 to one; they infect and destroy bacterial cells and have the ability to transfer genetic material from one bacterium to another, with potentially profound implications for GI health and disease.–“There is a predator-prey relationship between bacteriophages and bacteria that may play a role in altering the bacterial microbiota in conditions such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),” says Prof. Wu. “The fact that bacteriophages induce immune responses in bacteria and may also transmit genomic material into bacteria that may alter their function makes these viruses extremely important and we need to know much more about them.”–Meiofauna in the microbiota—DNA sequencing techniques have also confirmed the presence of commensal meiofauna in the GI tract that may be important in promoting health and disease.1 Certain types of meiofauna (e.g. helminths and Blastocystis) are thought to protect against IBD by suppressing inflammation, and others believe that increased fungal diversity may contribute to GI diseases, including IBD.–“Decreases in fungal diversity have been shown to correlate with an increase in healthy bacterial colonisation following probiotic therapy, suggesting niche competition between fungi and bacteria,” says Prof. Wu. “This effect is also evident in the development of mucosal Candida infection following antibiotic treatment.”–Non-bacterial microbes and the future–Prof. Wu and others believe that the importance of trans-domain interactions in health and disease are only just beginning to emerge. By studying the complex relationships between bacterial and non-bacterial microbes in the gut, it is hoped that a greater understanding of pathogenic mechanisms will be gained, leading ultimately to novel approaches to diagnosis and treatment.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Gastroenterological Association. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference- Jason M. Norman, Scott A. Handley, Herbert W. Virgin. Kingdom-agnostic Metagenomics and the Importance of Complete Characterization of Enteric Microbial Communities. Gastroenterology, 2014; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.02.001

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Glyphosate- tolerances for residues.
(a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed below resulting from the application of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of glyphosate, the ammonium salt of glyphosate, and the potassium salt of glyphosate. Compliance with the following tolerance levels is to be determined by measuring only glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine).

Commodity
Parts per million

Acerola
0.2

Alfalfa, seed
0.5

Almond, hulls
25

Aloe vera
0.5

Ambarella
0.2

Animal feed, nongrass, group 18
400

Artichoke, globe
0.2

Asparagus
0.5

Atemoya
0.2

Avocado
0.2

Bamboo, shoots
0.2

Banana
0.2

Barley, bran
30

Beet, sugar, dried pulp
25

Beet, sugar, roots
10

Beet, sugar, tops
10

Berry and small fruit, group 13-07
0.20

Betelnut
1.0

Biriba
0.2

Blimbe
0.2

Breadfruit
0.2

Cacao bean, bean
0.2

Cactus, fruit
0.5

Cactus, pads
0.5

Canistel
0.2

Carrot
5.0

Chaya
1.0

Cherimoya
0.2

Citrus, dried pulp
1.5

Coconut
0.1

Coffee, bean, green
1.0

Corn, pop, grain
0.1

Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husk removed
3.5

Cotton, gin byproducts
210

Custard apple
0.2

Date, dried fruit
0.2

Dokudami
2.0

Durian
0.2

Epazote
1.3

Feijoa
0.2

Fig
0.2

Fish
0.25

Fruit, citrus, group 10-10
0.50

Fruit, pome, group 11-10
0.20

Fruit, stone, group 12
0.2

Galangal, roots
0.2

Ginger, white, flower
0.2

Gourd, buffalo, seed
0.1

Governor’s plum
0.2

Gow kee, leaves
0.2

Grain, cereal, forage, fodder and straw, group 16, except field corn, forage and field corn, stover
100

Grain, cereal, group 15 except field corn, popcorn, rice, sweet corn, and wild rice
30

Grass, forage, fodder and hay, group 17
300

Guava
0.2

Herbs subgroup 19A
0.2

Hop, dried cones
7.0

Ilama
0.2

Imbe
0.2

Imbu
0.2

Jaboticaba
0.2

Jackfruit
0.2

Kava, roots
0.2

Kenaf, forage
200

Leucaena, forage
200

Longan
0.2

Lychee
0.2

Mamey apple
0.2

Mango
0.2

Mangosteen
0.2

Marmaladebox
0.2

Mioga, flower
0.2

Noni
0.20

Nut, pine
1.0

Nut, tree, group 14
1.0

Oilseeds, group 20, except canola
40

Okra
0.5

Olive
0.2

Oregano, Mexican, leaves
2.0

Palm heart
0.2

Palm heart, leaves
0.2

Palm, oil
0.1

Papaya
0.2

Papaya, mountain
0.2

Passionfruit
0.2

Pawpaw
0.2

Pea, dry
8.0

Peanut
0.1

Peanut, hay
0.5

Pepper leaf, fresh leaves
0.2

Peppermint, tops
200

Perilla, tops
1.8

Persimmon
0.2

Pineapple
0.1

Pistachio
1.0

Pomegranate
0.2

Pulasan
0.2

Quinoa, grain
5.0

Rambutan
0.2

Rice, grain
0.1

Rice, wild, grain
0.1

Rose apple
0.2

Sapodilla
0.2

Sapote, black
0.2

Sapote, mamey
0.2

Sapote, white
0.2

Shellfish
3.0

Soursop
0.2

Spanish lime
0.2

Spearmint, tops
200

Spice subgroup 19B
7.0

Star apple
0.2

Starfruit
0.2

Stevia, dried leaves
1.0

Sugar apple
0.2

Sugarcane, cane
2.0

Sugarcane, molasses
30

Surinam cherry
0.2

Sweet potato
3.0

Tamarind
0.2

Tea, dried
1.0

Tea, instant
7.0

Teff, forage
100

Teff, grain
5.0

Teff, hay
100

Ti, leaves
0.2

Ti, roots
0.2

Ugli fruit
0.5

Vegetable, bulb, group 3-07
0.20

Vegetable, cucurbit, group 9
0.5

Vegetable, foliage of legume, subgroup 7A, except soybean
0.2

Vegetable, fruiting, group 8-10 (except okra)
0.10

Vegetable, leafy, brassica, group 5
0.2

Vegetable, leafy, except brassica, group 4
0.2

Vegetable, leaves of root and tuber, group 2, except sugar beet tops
0.2

Vegetable, legume, group 6 except soybean and dry pea
5.0

Vegetables, root and tuber, group 1, except carrot, sweet potato, and sugar beet
0.20

Wasabi, roots
0.2

Water spinach, tops
0.2

Watercress, upland
0.2

Wax jambu
0.2

Yacon, tuber
0.2

(2) Tolerances are established for residues of glyphosate, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed below resulting from the application of glyphosate, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate, the ethanolamine salt of glyphosate, the dimethylamine salt of glyphosate, the ammonium salt of glyphosate, and the potassium salt of glyphosate. Compliance with the following tolerance levels is to be determined by measuring only glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its metabolite N-acetyl-glyphosate (N-acetyl-N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine; calculated as the stoichiometric equivalent of glyphosate).

Commodity
Parts per Million

Canola, seed
20

Cattle, meat byproducts
5.0

Corn, field, forage
13

Corn, field, grain
5.0

Corn, field, stover
100

Egg
0.05

Goat, meat byproducts
5.0

Grain aspirated fractions
310.0

Hog, meat byproducts
5.0

Horse, meat byproducts
5.0

Poultry, meat
0.10

Poultry, meat byproducts
1.0

Sheep, meat byproducts
5.0

Soybean, forage
100.0

Soybean, hay
200.0

Soybean, hulls
120.0

Soybean, seed
20.0

(b) Section 18 emergency exemptions. [Reserved]

(c) Tolerances with regional registrations. [Reserved]

(d) Indirect or inadvertent residues. [Reserved]

[45 FR 64911, Oct. 1, 1980]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §180.364, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

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Damaged DNA amplified by activities such as smoking
Date:

January 15, 2015

Source:

ETH Zurich

In the majority of cases, the onset of cancer is characterised by a minor change in a person’s genetic material. A cell’s DNA mutates in a particular area to the extent that the cell no longer divides in a controlled manner, but begins to grow uncontrollably. In many cases, this type of genetic mutation involves chemical changes to individual building blocks of DNA. These changes are induced by smoking tobacco and consuming foods such as cured meats[F6] . This is because the contents of these materials can chemically react with and change building blocks of cellular DNA, thereby creating DNA adducts. Up to now, scientists have been able to determine whether gene samples contain adducts and if so, how many. However, the procedure is laborious and finding out exactly where a building block in the genetic code has been altered into an adduct has not been possible.—Researchers from the team led by Shana Sturla, professor of Food and Nutrition Toxicology, have succeeded for the first time in amplifying gene samples containing DNA adducts while retaining references to these adducts. This type of amplification is a prerequisite for the majority of technologies used by researchers to determine a gene’s DNA sequence. In the future, it may therefore be possible to expand DNA sequencing from the four basic DNA building blocks to include adducts. “The scientific community would have an important tool for making a detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation of cancer and the corresponding risk factors,” says Sturla.—Artificial counterpart found—The researchers focused their efforts on a specific, typical DNA adduct, an alkylguanine called O-6-benzylguanine. They recreated an enzyme reaction in a test tube to obtain a negative copy of the genetic material — analogous to how DNA is replicated naturally in cells. The scientists first had to find an artificial counterpart of the alkylguanine to be incorporated into the negative copy in its position — due to the fact that nature produces molecular counterparts to the basic DNA building blocks, but not to DNA adducts. This is why replicating genes usually leads to copy errors (or mutations) when adducts are present.–The ETH researchers produced several artificial derivatives of the basic DNA building blocks in the laboratory and tested them as potential counterparts to the alkylguanine. One proved particularly suitable. The researchers were then able to produce a negative copy of a gene containing the alkylguanine.–The aim of the work carried out by Sturla and her colleagues was to demonstrate that it is feasible to amplify genes even when adducts are present. It should now be possible for researchers to find artificial counterparts to other adducts using the same method. As the ETH Professor points out, this means that altered genes could be amplified in the future and their sequences more easily ascertained. In 2010, Shana Sturla was awarded a five-year ERC Starting Grant from the European Research Council. The current project was partly financed by this award.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by ETH Zurich. The original article was written by Fabio Bergamin. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Laura A. Wyss, Arman Nilforoushan, Fritz Eichenseher, Ursina Suter, Nina Blatter, Andreas Marx, Shana J. Sturla. Specific Incorporation of an Artificial Nucleotide Opposite a Mutagenic DNA Adduct by a DNA Polymerase. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2015; 137 (1): 30 DOI: 10.1021/ja5100542

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Aging impacts epigenome in human skeletal muscle
Date:

November 20, 2013

Source:

Buck Institute for Research on Aging

Our epigenome is a set of chemical switches that turn parts of our genome off and on at strategic times and locations. These switches help alter the way our cells act and are impacted by environmental factors including diet, exercise and stress. Research at the Buck Institute reveals that aging also effects the epigenome in human skeletal muscle. The study, appearing on line in Aging Cell, provides a method to study sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of muscle mass that begins in middle age.—The results came from the first genome-wide DNA methylation study in disease-free individuals. DNA methylation involves the addition of a methyl group to the DNA and is involved in a particular layer of epigenetic regulation and genome maintenance. In this study researchers compared DNA methylation in samples of skeletal muscle taken from healthy young (18 — 27 years of age) and older (68 — 89 years of age) males. Buck faculty and lead scientist Simon Melov, PhD, said researchers looked at more than 480,000 sites throughout the genome. “We identified a suite of epigenetic markers that completely separated the younger from the older individuals — there was a change in the epigenetic fingerprint,” said Melov. “Our findings were statistically significant; the chances of that happening are infinitesimal.”–Melov said scientists identified about six-thousand sites throughout the genome that were differentially methylated with age and that some of those sites are associated with genes that regulate activity at the neuromuscular junction which connects the nervous system to our muscles. “It’s long been suspected that atrophy at this junction is a weak link in sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass we get with age,” said Melov. “Maybe this differential methylation causes it. We don’t know.”–Studying the root causes and development of sarcopenia in humans is problematic; the research would require repeated muscle biopsies taken over time, something that would be hard to collect. Melov says now that the epigenetic markers have been identified in humans, the goal would be to manipulate those sites in laboratory animals. “We would be able to observe function over time and potentially use drugs to alter the rate of DNA methylation at those sites,” he said. Melov says changes in DNA methylation are very common in cancer and that the process is more tightly controlled in younger people.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Buck Institute for Research on Aging. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Simon Melov, PhD et al. Genome-wide DNA methylation changes with age in disease-free human skeletal muscle. Aging Cell, November 2013

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Cellular Pentration with silver nanoparticles toxic to Cells
Date:

January 21, 2015

Source:

Plataforma SINC

This is a microscope image of a cell with silver nanoparticles with green fluorescence and red-stained nucleus.

Credit: MPIKG

The use of colloidal silver to treat illnesses has become more popular in recent years, but its ingestion, prohibited in countries like the US, can be harmful to health. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute in Germany have now confirmed that silver nanoparticles are significantly toxic when they penetrate cells, although the number of toxic radicals they generate can vary by coating them with carbohydrates.–Silver salts have been used externally for centuries for their antiseptic properties in the treatment of pains and as a surface disinfectant for materials. There are currently people who use silver nanoparticles to make homemade potions to combat infections and illnesses such as cancer and AIDS, although in some cases the only thing they achieve is argyria or gray-tinged skin.–Health authorities warn that there is no scientific evidence that supports the therapeutic efficiency of colloidal silver and in fact, in some countries like the US, its ingestion is prohibited. On the contrary, there are numerous studies which demonstrate the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on cells.–One of these studies has just been published in the ‘Journal of Nanobiotechnology’ by an international team of researchers coordinated from the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Germany). “We have observed that it is only when silver nanoparticles enter inside the cells that they produce serious harm, and that their toxicity is basically due to the oxidative stress they create,” explained the chemist Guillermo Orts-Gil, project co-ordinator.–To carry out the study, the team has analysed how different carbohydrates act on the surface of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) of around 50 nanometres, which have been introduced into cultures of liver cells and tumour cells from the nervous system of mice. The results reveal that, for example, the toxic effects of the Ag-NP are much greater if they are covered with glucose instead of galactose or mannose.

‘Trojan horse’ mechanism—-Although not all the details on the complex toxicological mechanisms are known, it is known that the nanoparticles use a ‘Trojan horse’ mechanism to trick the membrane’s defences and get inside the cell. “The new data shows how the different carbohydrate coatings regulate the way in which they do this, and this is hugely interesting for controlling their toxicity and designing future trials,” points out Orts-Gil.–The researcher highlights that there is a “clear correlation between the coating of the nanoparticles, the oxidative stress and toxicity, and thus, these results open up new perspectives on regulating the bioactivity of the Ag-NP through the use of carbohydrates.”—Silver nanoparticles are not only used to make homemade remedies; they are also increasingly used in drugs such as vaccines, as well as products such as clothes and cleaning cloths.[F7] –Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference–David C Kennedy, Guillermo Orts-Gil, Chian-Hui Lai, Larissa Müller, Andrea Haase, Andreas Luch, Peter H Seeberger. Carbohydrate functionalization of silver nanoparticles modulates cytotoxicity and cellular uptake. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 2014; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12951-014-0059-z

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How silver turns people blue
Date:

October 30, 2012

Source:

Brown University

Too much of a good thing. Scientists have known for years argyria — a condition that turns the skin blue ( actually grey ) — had something to do with silver. Brown scientists have figured out the complex chemistry behind it.–Ingesting silver — in antimicrobial health tonics or for extensive medical treatments involving silver — can cause argyria, condition in which the skin turns grayish-blue. Brown researchers have discovered how that happens. The process is similar to developing black-and-white photographs, and it’s not just the silver.–Researchers from Brown University have shown for the first time how ingesting too much silver can cause argyria, a rare condition in which patients’ skin turns a striking shade of grayish blue.–“It’s the first conceptual model giving the whole picture of how one develops this condition,” said Robert Hurt, professor of engineering at Brown and part of the research team. “What’s interesting here is that the particles someone ingests aren’t the particles that ultimately cause the disorder.”–Scientists have known for years argyria had something to do with silver. The condition has been documented in people who drink antimicrobial health tonics containing silver nanoparticles and in people who have had extensive medical treatments involving silver. Tissue samples from patients showed silver particles actually lodged deep in the skin, but it wasn’t clear how they got there.–As it turns out, argyria is caused by a complex series of chemical reactions, Hurt said. His paper on the subject, authored with Brown colleagues Jingyu Liu, Zhongying Wang, Frances Liu, and Agnes Kane, is published in the journal ACS Nano.–“The particles someone ingests aren’t the particles that ultimately cause the disorder.”Hurt and his team show that nanosilver is broken down in the stomach, absorbed into the bloodstream as a salt and finally deposited in the skin, where exposure to light turns the salt back into elemental silver and creates the telltale bluish hue. That final stage, oddly, involves the same photochemical reaction used to develop black-and-white photographs.

From silver to salt and back again

Hurt and his team have been studying the environmental impact of silver, specifically silver nanoparticles, for years. They’ve found that nanosilver tends to corrode in acidic environments, giving off charged ions — silver salts — that can be toxic in large amounts. Hurt’s graduate student, Jingyu Liu (now a postdoctoral fellow at the National Institute of Standards and Technology), thought those same toxic ions might also be produced when silver enters the body, and could play a role in argyria.–To find out, the researchers mixed a series chemical treatments that could simulate what might happen to silver inside the body. One treatment simulated the acidic environment in the gastrointestinal tract; one mimicked the protein content of the bloodstream; and a collagen gel replicated the base membranes of the skin.–They found that nanosilver corrodes in stomach acid in much the same way it does in other acidic environments. Corrosion strips silver atoms of electrons, forming positively charged silver salt ions.[F8] Those ions can easily be taken into the bloodstream through channels that absorb other types of salt. That’s a crucial step, Hurt said. Silver metal particles themselves aren’t terribly likely to make it from the GI tract to the blood, but when they’re transformed into a salt, they’re ushered right through.–From there, Hurt and his team showed that silver ions bind easily with sulfur present in blood proteins, which would give them a free ride through the bloodstream. Some of those ions would eventually end up in the skin, where they’d be exposed to light.–To re-create this end stage, the researchers shined ultraviolet light on collagen gel containing silver ions. The light caused electrons from the surrounding materials to jump onto the unstable ions, returning them to their original state — elemental silver. This final reaction is ultimately what turns patients’ skin blue. The photoreaction is similar to the way silver is used in black and white photography. When exposed to light, silver salts on a photographic film reduce to elemental silver and darken, creating an image.

Implications for nanosilver

Despite its potential toxicity, silver has been valued for centuries for its ability to kill germs, which is why silver nanoparticles are used today in everything from food packaging to bandages. There are concerns however that this nanoparticle form of silver might pose a unique health threat all its own.–This research, however, “would be one piece of evidence that you could treat nanoparticles in the same way as other forms of silver,” Hurt says.–That’s because the bioavailable form of silver — the form that is absorbed into the bloodstream — is the silver salt that’s made in the stomach. Any elemental silver that’s ingested is just the raw material to make that bioavailable salt. So ingesting silver in any form, be it nano or not, would have basically the same effect, Hurt said.–“The concern in this case is the total dose of silver, not what form it’s in,” Hurt said. “This study implies that silver nanoparticles will be less toxic than an equivalent amount of silver salt, at least in this exposure scenario.”–The National Science Foundation and the Superfund Research Program of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences funded the research.–Story Source—The above story is based on materials provided by Brown University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference–Jingyu Liu, Zhongying Wang, Frances D. Liu, Agnes B. Kane, Robert H. Hurt. Chemical Transformations of Nanosilver in Biological Environments. ACS Nano, 2012; 121017162703002 DOI: 10.1021/nn303449n

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More dangerous chemicals in everyday life- Now experts warn against nanosilver
Date:

February 27, 2014

Source:

University of Southern Denmark

This is a photo of Thiago Verano-Braga, Ph.D., of the University of Southern Denmark, whose work alongside other scientists is bringing the dangers of nano-silver to light.–Endocrine disrupters are not the only worrying chemicals that ordinary consumers are exposed to in everyday life. Also nanoparticles of silver, found in e.g. dietary supplements, cosmetics and food packaging, now worry scientists. A new study from the University of Southern Denmark shows that nano-silver can penetrate our cells and cause damage.–Silver has an antibacterial effect and therefore the food and cosmetic industry often coat their products with silver nanoparticles. Nano-silver can be found in e.g. drinking bottles, cosmetics, band aids, toothbrushes, running socks, refrigerators, washing machines and food packagings.–“Silver as a metal does not pose any danger, but when you break it down to nano-sizes, the particles become small enough to penetrate a cell wall. If nano-silver enters a human cell, it can cause changes in the cell,” explain Associate Professor Frank Kjeldsen and PhD Thiago Verano-Braga, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the University of Southern Denmark.–Together with their research colleagues they have just published the results of a study of such cell damages in the journal ACS Nano.–The researchers examined human intestinal cells, as they consider these to be most likely to come into contact with nano-silver, ingested with food.–“We can confirm that nano-silver leads to the formation of harmful, so called free radicals in cells. We can also see that there are changes in the form and amount of proteins. This worries us,” say Frank Kjeldsen and Thiago Verano-Braga.–A large number of serious diseases are characterized by the fact that there is an overproduction of free radicals in cells. This applies to cancer and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.–Kjeldsen and Verano-Braga emphasizes that their research is conducted on human cells in a laboratory, not based on living people. They also point out that they do not know how large a dose of nano-silver, a person must be exposed to for the emergence of cellular changes.–“We don’t know how much is needed, so we cannot conclude that nano-silver can make you sick. But we can say that we must be very cautious and worried when we see an overproduction of free radicals in human cells,” they say.–Nano-silver is also sold as a dietary supplement, promising to have an antibacterial, anti-flu and cancer-inhibatory effect. The nano-silver should also help against low blood counts and bad skin. In the EU, the marketing of dietary supplements and foods with claims to have medical effects is not allowed. But the nano-silver is easy to find and buy online.–In the wake of the Uiversity of Southern Denmark-research, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration now warns against taking dietary supplements with nano-silver.–“The recent research strongly suggests that it can be dangerous,” says Søren Langkilde from the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration to the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR).–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Southern Denmark. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Thiago Verano-Braga, Rona Miethling-Graff, Katarzyna Wojdyla, Adelina Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Jonathan R. Brewer, Helmut Erdmann, Frank Kjeldsen. Insights into the Cellular Response Triggered by Silver Nanoparticles Using Quantitative Proteomics. ACS Nano, 2014; 140220105558007 DOI: 10.1021/nn4050744

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[F1]Glyphosates nano particles—soy—grains—GMO’s—are the real culprits going on with this—when these are eliminated and the microbiome is restored the health of a perso returns

[F2]A new virus—it could be coincidental —but there is a mosaic virus that is utilized in genetics that may alter as well due to the glyphosate being incorporated

[F3]Incorporating into the bacterias genetic material—sounds like something that would have to be extremely small in order to enter into the bacteria—

[F4]Genettics—NANO—Glyphosates—Chemtrail Fallout….

[F5]This is really wreaking of Genetics

[F6]This is an old report —we know today that almost anything being consumed with genetics—glyphosates –endocrine disrupting chemicals—nanoparticles—metals –phytoestrogenic foods will also cause this kind of mutation

[F7]Being overloaded with nano

[F8]Which can be attracted to cells causing further translocation of the silver —into the cell causing the oxidative stress to destroy the cells