Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – December 6th 2014

Tony Pantallaresco

Welcome to Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show notes – December 6th 2014

In this weeks show, Tony talks about the following topics:

Glyphosate-Endocrine Disrupting
Stick out your tongue- Tongue appearance and illness
Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic by ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga rhizhome in human breast carcinoma cell line
A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss
Cottage Cheese Making


“First of all, we need to understand what we mean by the word safe. Actually, in terms of the academic literature, “safe” refers to “an acceptable level of risk.” It doesn’t refer to situations where there is no risk. Most of us drive in cars all the time and consider it to be safe even though we know that people are killed and injured in automobiles frequently. We have to understand that safe equals acceptable risk.
Glyphosate Poses Risk to Female Reproductive Health
Although there are only a handful of studies on the safety of GE soybeans, there is considerable evidence that glyphosate? especially in conjunction with the other ingredients in Roundup? wreaks havoc with the endocrine and reproductive systems.

Glyphosate throws off the delicate hormonal balance that governs the whole reproductive cycle. It interferes with aromatase, which produces estrogen, and it’s also highly toxic to the placenta in pregnant women. In a 2009 French study, scientists discovered that glyphosate can kill the cells in the outer layer of the human placenta (the trophoblast membrane), which in turn can kill the placenta. A mere 1/500th the amount needed to kill weeds was able to kill these cells! The amount is so small, according to the study’s authors, that the “residual levels to be expected, especially in food and feed derived from Roundup formulation-treated crops” could be enough to “cause cell damage and even [cell] death.” If the endocrine function of the placenta is destroyed, then ovarian and endometrial function may also suffer, and the end result could be a miscarriage. It’s important to remember that glyphosate can accumulate in your body, allowing its toxic effects to grow worse with repeated consumption of foods containing these Roundup Ready crops. Clearly, this may become a serious concern for the next generation, as most young children girls and boys alike growing up today are fed processed foods containing GE ingredients on a daily basis, year after year…—


Monsanto Roundup: The Impacts of Glyphosate Herbicide on Human Health. Pathways to Modern Diseases
Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases
By Global Research News

Global Research, January 02, 2014

Entropy and Global Research 12 July 2013

Theme: Biotechnology and GMO, Science and Medicine

by Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff

Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide[F1] . The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate’s inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy[F2] : the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.


The foodstuffs of the Western diet, primarily grown by industrial agriculture, are increasingly being produced using a two-part system of engineered plant seeds and toxic chemical application.[F3] –Novel bacterial genes are incorporated through genetic engineering, and toxic chemical residues are readily taken up by the engineered plants[F4] . Research indicates that the new bacterial RNA and DNA present in genetically engineered plants, providing chemical herbicide resistance and other traits, have not yet fully understood biological effects. This paper however, will only examine the effects of the chemical glyphosate, the most dangerous Bio Agent on the planet.——–Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine), the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, is the main herbicide in use today in the United States, and increasingly throughout the World, in agriculture and in lawn maintenance, especially now that the patent has expired. 80% of genetically modified crops, particularly corn, soy, canola, cotton, sugar beets and most recently alfalfa, are specifically targeted towards the introduction of genes resistant to glyphosate, the so-called “Roundup Ready® feature” In humans, only small amounts (~2%) of ingested glyphosate are metabolized to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and the rest enters the blood stream and is eventually eliminated through the urine [1].

Studies have shown sharp increases in glyphosate contamination in streams in the Midwestern United States following the mid 1990s, pointing to its increasing role as the herbicide of choice in agriculture [2]. A now common practice of crop desiccation through herbicide administration shortly before the harvest assures an increased glyphosate presence in food sources as well [3–5]. The industry asserts that glyphosate is nearly nontoxic to mammals [6,7], and therefore it is not a problem if glyphosate is ingested in food sources. Acutely, it is claimed to be less toxic than aspirin [1,6]. As a consequence, measurement of its presence in food is practically nonexistent. A vocal minority of experts believes that glyphosate may instead be much more toxic than is claimed, although the effects are only apparent after a considerable time lapse.

Thus, while short-term studies in rodents have shown no apparent toxicity [8], studies involving life-long exposure in rodents have demonstrated liver and kidney dysfunction and a greatly increased risk of cancer, with shortened lifespan [9].

Glyphosate’s claimed mechanism of action in plants is the disruption of the shikimate pathway, which is involved with the synthesis of the essential aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan [10].

The currently accepted dogma is that glyphosate is not harmful to humans or to any mammals because the shikimate pathway is absent in all animals. However, this pathway is present in gut bacteria, which play an important and heretofore largely overlooked role in human physiology [11–14] through an integrated biosemiotic relationship with the human host. In addition to aiding digestion, the gut microbiota synthesize vitamins, detoxify xenobiotics, and participitate in immune system homeostasis and gastrointestinal tract permeability [14]. Furthermore, dietary factors modulate the microbial composition of the gut [15].[F5] —-The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases such as juvenile onset Crohn’s disease has increased substantially in the last decade in Western Europe [16] and the Entropy 2013, 15 1418 United States [17]. It is reasonable to suspect that glyphosate’s impact on gut bacteria may be contributing to these diseases and conditions.—-However, the fact that female rats are highly susceptible to mammary tumors following chronic exposure to glyphosate [9] suggests that there may be something else going on. Our systematic search of the literature has led us to the realization that many of the health problems that appear to be associated with a Western diet could be explained by biological disruptions that have already been attributed to glyphosate. These include digestive issues, obesity, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, Parkinson’s disease, liver diseases, and cancer, among others. While many other environmental toxins obviously also contribute to these diseases and conditions, we believe that glyphosate may be the most significant environmental toxin, mainly because it is pervasive and it is often handled carelessly due to its perceived nontoxicity.

In this paper, we will develop the argument that the recent alarming increase in all of these health issues can be traced back to a combination of gut dysbiosis, impaired sulfate transport, and suppression of the activity of the various members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes. We have found clear evidence that glyphosate disrupts gut bacteria and suppresses the CYP enzyme class. The connection to sulfate transport is more indirect, but justifiable from basic principles of biophysics.

In the remainder of this paper, we will first provide evidence from the literature that explains some of the ways in which glyphosate adversely affects plants, microbes, amphibians and mammals.

Section 3 will discuss the role that gut dysbiosis, arguably resulting from glyphosate exposure, plays in inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship to autism.

Section 4 argues that the excess synthesis of phenolic compounds associated with glyphosate exposure represents a strategy to compensate for impairments in the transport of free sulfate.

Section 5 will provide evidence that glyphosate inhibits CYP enzymes. Section 6 explains how obesity can arise from depletion of serum tryptophan due to its sequestering by macrophages responding to inflammation. Section 7 shows how extreme tryptophan depletion can lead to impaired nutrient absorption and anorexia nervosa.

Section 8 provides a brief review of all the roles played by CYP enzymes in metabolism. Section 9 discusses a likely consequence to glyphosate’s disruption of the CYP-analog enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Section 10 shows how glyphosate’s effects could plausibly lead to brain-related disorders such as autism, dementia, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Section 11 mentions several other health factors that can potentially be linked to glyphosate, including reproductive issues and cancer.

Section 12 discusses the available evidence that glyphosate is contaminating our food supplies, especially in recent years. Following a discussion section, we sum up our findings with a brief

Numerous laboratory studies have shown that glyphosate and the Roundup formulation can be genotoxic and endocrine disrupting. One study summarises these effects occurring at doses substantially lower than those used in agriculture, or permitted as residues: at 0.5 mg/kg (40 times lower than levels permitted in soybeans in the US) they were anti-androgenic; at 2 mg/kg they were anti-oestrogenic; at 1 mg/kg they disrupted the enzyme aromatase; at 5 mg/kg they damaged DNA, and at 10 mg/kg there were cytotoxic. These effects can result in crucial outcomes for sexual and other cell differentiation, bone metabolism, liver metabolism, reproduction, development and behaviour, and hormone dependent diseases such as breast and prostate cancer (Gasnier et al 2009).

Exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides, even at very low doses may result in reproductive and hormonal problems, miscarriages, low birth weights, birth defects, and various cancers—especially haematological cancers such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and hormonal cancers such as breast cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked exposure to glyphosate with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, hairy cell leukaemia, multiple myeloma, DNA damage; and one study with spontaneous abortions and pre-term deliveries

GM pea protein caused lung damage in mice
Offspring of rats fed GM soy showed a five-fold increase in mortality, lower birth weights, and the inability to reproduce

GM potatoes may cause cancer in rats
Male mice fed GM soy had damaged young sperm cells

Bacteria in your gut can take up DNA from GM food
The embryo offspring of GM soy-fed mice had altered DNA functioning

GM foods lead to significant organ disruptions in rats and mice, specifically the kidney, liver, heart and spleen
Several US farmers reported sterility or fertility problems among pigs and cows fed on GM corn varieties

Bt corn caused a wide variety of immune responses in mice, commonly associated with diseases such as arthritis, Lou Gehrig’s disease, osteoporosis, and inflammatory bowel disease
Investigators in India have documented fertility problems, abortions, premature births, and other serious health issues, including deaths, among buffaloes fed GM cottonseed products


Stick out your tongue- Tongue appearance and illness
Date-December 5, 2014

Source-Inderscience Publishers

Physicians often ask their patients to “Please stick out your tongue.” The tongue can betray signs of illness, which combined with other symptoms such as a cough, fever, presence of jaundice, headache or bowel habits, can help the physician offer a diagnosis. For people in remote areas who do not have ready access to a physician, a new diagnostic system is reported in the International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Technology that works to combine the soft inputs of described symptoms with a digital analysis of an image of the patient’s tongue.–Karthik Ramamurthy of the Department of Information Technology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, in Chennai, India, and colleagues, have trained a neural network that can take soft inputs such as standard questions about symptoms and a digitized image of the patient’s tongue and offer a likely diagnosis so that professional healthcare might then be sought if needed. The digitized images of the patient’s tongue reveal discoloration, engorgement, texture and other factors that might be linked to illness.–Smoothness and “beefiness” might reveal vitamin B12, iron, or folate deficiency, and anemia. Black discoloration could be indicative of fungal overgrowth in HIV patients or prolonged antibiotic use. Longitudinal furrows on the tongue are associated with syphilis. Ulcers may indicate the presence of Crohn’s disease or colitis and various other conditions. The team’s automated diagnostic, however, utilizes the condition of the tongue in combination with other symptoms to identify whether a patient has any of various illnesses: common cold, flu, bronchitis, streptococcal throat infection, sinusitis, allergies, asthma, pulmonary edema, food poisoning and diverticulitis.–The current system allows diagnosis of fourteen distinct conditions but the team adds that they will be able to add eye images and use those as an additional hard input for their neural network and so extend its repertoire significantly.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Inderscience Publishers. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Karthik, R., Menaka, R., Kulkarni, S. and Deshpande, R. Virtual doctor: an artificial medical diagnostic system based on hard and soft inputs. Int. J. Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp.329-342

The two main characteristics of the tongue in TCM ZHENG diagnosis are the color and the coating. The color of the patient’s tongue color provides information about his/her health status. For example [13], dark red color can indicate inflammation or ulceration, while a white tongue indicates cold attack, mucus deposits, or a weakness in the blood leading to such conditions as anemia [12]. Moreover, a yellow tongue points out a disorder of the liver and gallbladder, and blue or purple implies stagnation of blood circulation and a serious weakening of the part of the digestive system that corresponds to the area of the tongue where the color appears.

Tongue Diagnosis: Color of the Tongue:

Progression of Color: When a body shows dis-ease the tongue color (underneath the coating) turns from pink to pale, to red and then to purple.
Purple tongues mean blood stasis.
Red dots on the tongue are called points and they have a meaning wherever they are. In Asian and African people these red dots can look brown.
Tongue Diagnosis: Coating of the Tongue: (Coating is related to Stomach function.)

A white coat corresponds to cold in the area of the body correlating to the tongue.
A yellow coat is related to heat.
A coating can be with “root” which means the coating cannot be scraped off and it looks like grass growing from the soil.
A coating without root looks like it has been sprinkled on and can be scraped off.
The thicker the coat, the more progressed the disease.
Lack of a coat means that the digestion is not working correctly.
The coating is slightly thicker on the back of the tongue.


Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic by ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga rhizhome in human breast carcinoma cell line.

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:192

Authors: Samarghandian S, Hadjzadeh MA, Afshari JT, Hosseini M

BACKGROUND: We investigated the potential of galangal rhizomes to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in the cultured human breast carcinoma cell line, (MCF-7) in compare with the non-malignant (MRC-5) cells.-METHODS: Both cells were cultured in DMEM medium and treated with galangal rhizomes for three consecutive days. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate.
RESULTS: The results showed that the ethanolic extract of galangal rhizomes decreased cell viability in the malignant cells as a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The IC50 values against MCF-7 were determined at 400.0 ± 11.7 and 170.0 ± 5.9 μg/ml after 48 and 72 h respectively. The morphology of MCF-7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the cell proliferation assay results. Alpinia galanga induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as determined by flow cytometry.–CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the extract of Alpinia galanga exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a breast cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer.–PMID: 24935101 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Recipe—Make a tea out of this or even percolate this in a coffee percolator—this will also strengthen the heart and intestines


A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial1,2,3
Amely M Verreijen,
Sjors Verlaan,
Mariëlle F Engberink,
Sophie Swinkels,
Johan de Vogel-van den Bosch, and
Peter JM Weijs
+ Author Affiliations

1. 1From the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (AMV, MFE, and PJMW), and Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands (SV, SS, and JdV-vdB).
+ Author Notes

· ↵2 Supported by Nutricia Research, Nutricia Advanced Medical Nutrition.

· ↵3 Address correspondence to AM Verreijen, School of Sports and Nutrition, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, Dr. Meurerlaan 8, 1067 AM, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail:

Background: Intentional weight loss in obese older adults is a risk factor for muscle loss and sarcopenia.

Objective: The objective was to examine the effect of a high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement on muscle mass preservation during intentional weight loss in obese older adults.

Design: We included 80 obese older adults in a double-blind randomized controlled trial. During a 13-wk weight loss program, all subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (−600 kcal/d) and performed resistance training 3×/wk. Subjects were randomly allocated to a high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement including a mix of other macro- and micronutrients (150 kcal, 21 g protein; 10×/wk, intervention group) or an isocaloric control. Primary outcome was change in appendicular muscle mass. Secondary outcomes were body composition, handgrip strength, and physical performance. Data were analyzed by using ANCOVA and mixed linear models with sex and baseline value as covariates.

Results: At baseline, mean ± SD age was 63 ± 5.6 y, and body mass index (in kg/m2) was 33 ± 4.4. During the trial, protein intake was 1.11 ± 0.28 g [F6] · kg body weight–1 · d–1 in the intervention group compared with 0.85 ± 0.24 in the control group (P < 0.001). Both intervention and control groups decreased in body weight (−3.4 ± 3.6 kg and −2.8 ± 2.8 kg; both P < 0.001) and fat mass (−3.2 ± 3.1 kg and −2.5 ± 2.4 kg; both P < 0.001), with no differences between groups. The 13-wk change in appendicular muscle mass, however, was different in the intervention and control groups [+0.4 ± 1.2 kg and −0.5 ± 2.1 kg, respectively; β = 0.95 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 1.81); P = 0.03]. Muscle strength and function improved over time without significant differences between groups. Conclusion: A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement compared with isocaloric control preserves appendicular muscle mass in obese older adults during a hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise program and might therefore reduce the risk for sarcopenia. This trial was registered at the Dutch Trial Register ( as NTR2751. **************************************************************************** Cottage Cheese Making Method 1 of 3: Use Rennet 1 Heat the milk. Pour the milk into a small saucepan and place it over medium heat. Heat the milk slowly, making sure it doesn't boil, until it reaches 85 degrees F. Use a candy thermometer to monitor the temperature. Turn off the heat when the milk is sufficiently warm. 2 Add the rennet. Place the drops of rennet directly in the milk. Use a spoon to stir the mixture for about 2 minutes. 3 Let the mixture stand. Cover the saucepan with a clean dish towel and let the rennet and milk sit untouched for about 4 hours. The rennet will start reacting with the milk to turn it into cheese.[1] 4 Slice the mixture. Remove the dish cloth and use a knife to make slices in the mixture and break up the curds. Slice several times in one direction, then make several slices in the opposite direction. 5 Cook the mixture. Add the salt to the saucepan. Turn the burner to medium low. Stir the mixture as it heats to help the curds separate from the whey. Stop as soon as the curds have separated and the whey looks slightly yellow. Don't overcook the mixture, or the curds will be hard. 6 Strain the curds. Place a piece of cheesecloth or a fine-mesh strainer over a bowl Pour the curds and whey into the cheesecloth to strain the curds from the whey. Keeping the curds in the cheesecloth suspended over a bowl, cover the curds loosely with plastic wrap and place all of it in the refrigerator to let the whey continue to drain for a few hours. Stir it every once in awhile to help it along. 7 Serve the cottage cheese. Place the curds in a clean bowl and add the cream or half and half. Season with more salt to taste. Method 2 of 3: Use Vinegar 1 Heat the milk. Place the milk in a saucepan and put it on the stove. Turn the burner to medium and let the milk heat to 120 degrees. Use a candy thermometer to monitor the milk's temperature. Remove it from heat once it is sufficiently warmed. 2 Add the vinegar. Pour the vinegar into the saucepan and stir the mixture slowly for 2 minutes. Cover the pan with a dish cloth and let the mixture rest for 30 minutes. 3 Strain the curds from the whey. Pour the mixture into a colander lined with cheesecloth or a thin dish cloth. Let the whey drain for about five minutes.[2] 4 Rinse the curds. Gather the edges of the cloth and hold the curds under a stream of cold water. Squeeze the curds and move them around until they are all rinsed and cooled. 5 Finish the cottage cheese. Place the curds in a bowl. Add the salt and the cream or half and half. Store in the refrigerator or serve immediately. Method 3 of 3: Use Lemon Juice 1 Heat the milk. Place it in a saucepan and heat it until it begins to steam, but does not come to a boil. Remove the milk from heat. 2 Add the lemon juice. Pour the lemon juice into the warm milk and stir it slowly for several minutes. 3 Let the mixture rest. Cover the saucepan with a dish cloth and let the curds separate from the whey for about an hour. 4 Strain the curds from the whey. Place a piece of cheesecloth over a bowl and pour the curds and whey into the cheesecloth. Let the curds drain for about 5 minutes. 5 Rinse the curds. Gather the ends of the cheesecloth and hold it under cool water to rinse the curds. Continue until they are completely cooled, then squeeze the cloth to get the curds as dry as possible. 6 Finish the cottage cheese. Place the curds in a bowl and add the salt and cream or half and half. **************************************************************************** Doubling saturated fat in diet does not increase saturated fat in blood Date: November 21, 2014 Source: Ohio State University This is a sampling of foods provided to research participants during the three weeks that they were eating a very-low-carb diet. Doubling or even nearly tripling saturated fat in the diet does not drive up total levels of saturated fat in the blood, according to a controlled diet study.--However, increasing levels of carbohydrates in the diet during the study promoted a steady increase in the blood of a fatty acid linked to an elevated risk for diabetes and heart disease. The finding "challenges the conventional wisdom that has demonized saturated fat and extends our knowledge of why dietary saturated fat doesn't correlate with disease," said senior author Jeff Volek, a professor of human sciences at The Ohio State University. In the study, participants were fed six three-week diets that progressively increased carbs while simultaneously reducing total fat and saturated fat, keeping calories and protein the same. The researchers found that total saturated fat in the blood did not increase -- and went down in most people -- despite being increased in the diet when carbs were reduced. Palmitoleic acid, a fatty acid associated with unhealthy metabolism of carbohydrates that can promote disease, went down with low-carb intake and gradually increased as carbs were re-introduced to the study diet. "It's unusual for a marker to track so closely with carbohydrate intake, making this a unique and clinically significant finding. As you increase carbs, this marker predictably goes up," Volek said. When that marker increases, he said, it is a signal that an increasing proportion of carbs are being converted to fat instead of being burned as fuel. Reducing carbs and adding fat to the diet in a well-formulated way, on the other hand, ensures the body will promptly burn the saturated fat as fuel -- so it won't be stored. "When you consume a very low-carb diet your body preferentially burns saturated fat," Volek said. "We had people eat 2 times more saturated fat than they had been eating before entering the study, yet when we measured saturated fat in their blood, it went down in the majority of people. Other traditional risk markers improved, as well." The research is published in the Nov. 21, 2014, issue of the journal PLOS ONE. Volek and colleagues recruited 16 adults for the study, all of whom had metabolic syndrome, defined as the presence of at least three of five factors that increase the risk for heart disease and diabetes (excess belly fat, elevated blood pressure, low "good" cholesterol, insulin resistance or glucose intolerance, and high triglycerides). After getting them to a baseline reduced-carb diet for three weeks, researchers fed the participants the exact same diets, which changed every three weeks, for 18 weeks. The diets started with 47 grams of carbs and 84 grams of saturated fat each day, and ended with 346 carb grams per day and 32 grams daily of saturated fat. Each day's meals added up to 2,500 calories and included about 130 grams of protein. The highest-carb level represented 55 percent of daily calories, which roughly matches the estimated daily percentage of energy provided by carbs in the American diet. Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in blood glucose, insulin and blood pressure that were similar across diets. Participants, on average, lost almost 22 pounds by the end of the trial. When looking at palmitoleic acid, however, the scientists found that it consistently decreased on the high-fat/low-carb diet in all participants. The fatty acid then showed a step-wise increase in concentration in the blood as carbs were progressively added to the diet. Elevated levels of palmitoleic acid in the blood have been linked to obesity and higher risk for inflammation, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, heart disease and prostate cancer. The study does not address what happens to palmitoleic acid levels when high carbs are combined with a diet high in saturated fat. Instead, Volek hoped to identify the carb-intake point at which participants began to store fat. "That turned out to be highly variable," he said. "Everyone showed increased palmitoleic acid levels as carbs increased, but values varied widely between individuals, especially at the highest carb intake. This is consistent with the idea that people vary widely in their tolerance to carbohydrates." Participants' existing health risks were not a factor in the study because everyone ate the exact same diet for 18 weeks. Their bodies' responses to the food were the focus of the work. "There is widespread misunderstanding about saturated fat. In population studies, there's clearly no association of dietary saturated fat and heart disease, yet dietary guidelines continue to advocate restriction of saturated fat. That's not scientific and not smart," Volek said. "But studies measuring saturated fat in the blood and risk for heart disease show there is an association. Having a lot of saturated fat in your body is not a good thing. The question is, what causes people to store more saturated fat in their blood, or membranes, or tissues? "People believe 'you are what you eat,' but in reality, you are what you save from what you eat," he said. "The point is you don't necessarily save the saturated fat that you eat. And the primary regulator of what you save in terms of fat is the carbohydrate in your diet. Since more than half of Americans show some signs of carb intolerance, it makes more sense to focus on carb restriction than fat restriction.[F7] " Volek sees this palmitoleic acid as a potential biomarker to signal when the body is converting carbs to fat, an early event that contributes to what he calls "metabolic mayhem.""There is no magical carb level, no cookie-cutter approach to diet, that works for everyone," he said. "There's a lot of interest in personalized nutrition, and using a dynamically changing biomarker could provide some index as to how the body is processing carbohydrates."-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University. The original article was written by Emily Caldwell. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Brittanie M. Volk, Laura J. Kunces, Daniel J. Freidenreich, Brian R. Kupchak, Catherine Saenz, Juan C. Artistizabal, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard S. Bruno, Carl M. Maresh, William J. Kraemer, Stephen D. Phinney, Jeff S. Volek. Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (11): e113605 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113605