Commonly used doses in diagnostic procedures are listed in Tables 1 and 2 . It is suggested that patients receiving diagnostic radiation doses take orally an appropriately prepared multiple antioxidants pill once 30 min to 60 min before radiation procedure. Radiation workers are advised to keep the body level of antioxidants high at all times by taking the appropriate multiple vitamins with antioxidants, B-vitamins and appropriate minerals, but no iron, copper or manganese. They may take a booster dose antioxidant pill 30 min to 60 min before exposure to higher radiation doses is anticipated. Frequent-flyers may also follow the same dose and dose schedule as radiation workers. The proposed strategy of increasing antioxidant levels in the body can also be implemented in populations living in regions with high background radiation that show increased levels of intermediate risk markers such as increased chromosomal damage or evidence of increased oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation. Such a strategy may reduce the levels of intermediate risk markers, and thereby, protect against long-term adverse health consequences of radiation exposure among this population. The proposed antioxidant strategy, in addition to potassium iodide, should be adopted in the event of nuclear accident or explosion of a “dirty bomb“. The efficacy of antioxidant strategy for biological radiation protection in humans against low doses of radiation has not been tested; however, all proposed antioxidant ingredients have exhibited radiation protection in humans and/or in laboratory experiments. Direct experiments with radioprotective antioxidant formulations cannot be performed in humans for obvious ethical reasons. However, implementation of the proposed recommendation may allow prospective studies among radiation workers to determine its efficacy in reducing health risks of low doses of radiation in present and future generations
Potassium iodide as a radioprotective agent
The increased use of radioactive iodine (131I) in research, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases, and the release of 131I during nuclear explosion made it imperative that all radiation workers working with 131I take potassium iodide pills. Since iodine selectively accumulates in the thyroid gland, and the thyroid is considered a very radiosensitive organ, it was thought that the intake of potassium iodide would saturate the thyroid gland with iodine, and thus would prevent the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. Thus potassium iodide remains a valuable strategy for protecting the thyroid gland against damage produced by radioactive iodine. However, this agent does not protect any other radiosensitive organ against -radiation that is produced by radioactive iodine. In addition, potassium iodide does not protect against damage produced by other radioactive isotopes or other radiation sources such as X-irradiation or -irradiation. Therefore, additional non-toxic agents must be identified to protect humans against radiation damage produced by sources other than radioactive iodine.
Multiple antioxidants as radioprotective agents
Although earlier identified radioprotective SH-compounds were found to be toxic in humans, glutathione-elevating agents such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and -lipoic acid, that are non-toxic (within certain concentration ranges) to humans, protect normal tissues against radiation damage [48, 60]. In addition to glutathione-elevating agents, dietary antioxidants such as vitamins E, C and -carotene are also of radioprotective value [57, 60–82], but very little attention has been given to these agents with respect to their use in protecting normal tissue against radiation damage in humans. Based on published data on antioxidants and radiation protection, it is possible to develop a non-toxic, cost-effective mixture of antioxidants (dietary and glutathione-elevating agents) that can provide biological protection against radiation damage in humans. Indeed, such formulations, referred to as Bio-Shield, (patent pending) are available commercially (Premier Micronutrient Corporation, Nashville, TN). In vitro animal and human studies that support the rationale of using multiple antioxidants in reducing the risk of radiation damage in humans are described below.
In vitro studies supporting the scientific rationale for using antioxidants for radiation protection in humans
It has been reported that mitotic cells, which are most sensitive to radiation, have the lowest levels of SH-compounds, whereas S-phase cells, which are the most resistant to radiation, have the highest levels of these compounds . The role of SH-compounds in radiation protection was further substantiated by the fact that an elevation of the intracellular levels of these compounds in mitotic cells makes them radioresistant to the same level as S-phase cells]. It has been shown that vitamin E and selenium reduced radiation-induced transformation in cell culture; the combination was more effective than the individual agents Natural -carotene protected against radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in cell culture. Vitamins E and C reduced radiation-induced mutations and chromosomal damage in mammalian cells, and radiation-induced lethality —In vivo (animal) studies supporting the scientific rationale for using antioxidants for radiation protection in humans Alpha-lipoic acid, a glutathione-elevating agent, increases the LD50 in mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of 1.26 Vitamin E, Vitamin C and -carotene protected rodents against the acute effects of irradiation. Vitamin A and -carotene protected normal tissue during radiation therapy of cancer in an animal model . A combination of vitamin A, C and E protected against radiation-induced myelosuppression during radiation therapy of cancer in an animal model. It has been reported that L-selenomethionine and several different types of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, n-acetylcysteine (NAC), lipoic acid and co-enzyme Q10) protected human cells in culture and rats in vivo against oxidative stress produced by photons, protons and 1 GeV iron ions .
Human studies supporting the scientific rationale for using antioxidants for radiation protection
Vitamin A and NAC may be effective against radiation-induced carcinogenesis . Alpha-lipoic acid treatment for 28 days lowered lipid peroxidation among children chronically exposed to low doses of radiation in the area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident . In another study, -carotene reduced cellular damage in the above population of children . A combination of vitamin E and -lipoic acid was more effective than the individual agents . -carotene also protected against radiation-induced mucositis during radiation therapy of cancer of the head and neck . A combination of dietary antioxidants was more effective in protecting normal tissue during radiation therapy than the individual agents [81, 82].
Department of Radiobiology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576 104, India.
Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica ( gota kola ) , Hippophae rhamnoides ( Sea Buckthorn), Ocimum sanctum ( Holy Basil ) , Panax ginseng ( American or Canadian Ginseng ), Podophyllum hexandrum ( Himalayan May Apple ), Amaranthus paniculatus ( Foxtail ), Emblica officinalis ( Indian goose berry or AMLA ), Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum ( Long Pepper ), Tinospora cordifoila ( Guduchii ), Mentha arvensis ( Wild Mint ), Mentha piperita ( Pepper Mint ), Syzygium cumini (Jambolan plum ), Zingiber officinale ( Ginger ), Ageratum conyzoides ( Billy Goat Weed ), Aegle marmelos (Indian Bael Fruit ) and Aphanamixis polystachya (amoora ) protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities.
Recipe With Herbals To Increase Adequate Protection Against Radiation—Make a tea with any of these or a combination—Use as a tincture—add to foods and soups or salads—the idea is to eithr build this inside to have an offsetting effect or to increase the ability to remove the excess rads you may wind up with
So deep are the protective, buffering and neutralizing properties of bicarbonate that it is used even with radiation exposure to protect the kidneys and other tissues. In a world that is already overexposed to uranium and mercury, sodium bicarbonate becomes even more important because mercury and uranium oxide directly attack the nuclear material and mitochondria of the cells. The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate diminishes the severity of the changes produced by uranium in the kidneys. It does this for all the heavy metals and other toxic chemicals including chemotherapy agents, which are highly lethal even in low dosages. After depleted uranium weapons were used starting in the first Gulf War, the United States has polluted the world with uranium oxide and it is showing up more and more in tests doctors perform. With a half life of several billion years we had better be prepared to get used to dealing with the toxic effects and help our bodies clear it more easily through the kidneys. Sodium bicarbonate is an absolute must item in any field hospital and it should be in used and recommended in all clinics and be present in every home medicine cabinet. In reality we need a more descriptive image for bicarbonate. Its pharmacological characteristics, even though widely used, are not well understood. What does bicarbonate really do? Well, instead of a muscleman with a mallet, an even better image would be a strong janitor mopping up the messes and carrying the poisons away. This strong janitor protects tissues and leaves an alkaline film or trail behind to make sure everything stays safe. In medicine, sodium bicarbonate is the cleaning and security man proven loyal through decades of faithful service and he can be brought in to provide some sort of protection in cases where people are suffering from radiation toxicity. So useful and strong is sodium bicarbonate that at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, researcher Don York has used baking soda to clean soil contaminated with uranium. Sodium bicarbonate binds with uranium, separating it from the dirt; so far, York has removed as much as 92 percent of the uranium from contaminated soil samples. I started writing about baking soda after discovering that the United States Army recommends the use of bicarbonate to protect the kidneys from radiation damage. Blaise W. LeBlanc, a former research chemist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture identified the byproduct hydroxymethylfurfural, (HMF) as a potential culprit in colony collapse disorder of bees. LeBlanc has a solution to minimize HMF toxicity: By adding bases (such as sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda, lime, potash or caustic soda) to HFCS, the pH rises and HMF levels drop. Sodium bicarbonate can safely remove paint, grease, oil and smoke residue, decreasing workers’ exposure to harsh chemicals and eliminating much of the hazardous waste associated with other cleaners. “Sodium bicarbonate is able to clean in areas where other substances pose fire hazards, because baking soda is a natural fire extinguisher,” says Kenneth Colbert, a general manager for Arm & Hammer. This is the reason it’s used by oncology centers to control chemo agent spills and its actually used intravenously to protect patients from the hazardous toxicity of chemotherapy. If the bombs start dropping anywhere on earth you will need to have a large amount of sodium bicarbonate on hand. Minimum stocks should be 25 or 50 pounds. You will also need iodine, magnesium chloride—-
Use after exposure to DU, medical radiation,nuclear radiation or dirty bombs, high altitude radiation exposure or irradiated foods. Dissolve 1 pound of sea salt or rock salt and 1 pound of baking soda in a hot bath — as hot as can be tolerated — and soak into the water until the bath becomes cool. This usually takes about 20-25 minutes. Afterwards, do not shower or rinse the salt off your body for 4-8 hours
Chorox bath can aid heavy metal removal from the body: DU and particulate radioisotopes from nuclear explosions or dirty bombs. Just add 1 cup of regular Clorox bleach to a tub of hot water — as hot as can be tolerated Soak in it until the water becomes cool or body temperature.Don’t wash off for at least 4 hours and make sure you’re using sufficient water
Dissolve 2 pounds of baking soda in a tub of hot water Soak in it until the water becomes cool or body temperature. Drink Green tea or better still take Polyphenon 100mg 6 caps every four hours to chelate toxins and heavy metals Drink EO Electrolyted Alkaline water 1 oz per 8 to 10 ounces of filtered water ( Multi Pure Water or Pure Water Systems recommended-RO or Distilled with the alkali added
Parcells recommended a stronger mixture of drinking an 8-ounce glass of water containing ¼-teaspoon natural sea salt and ¼-teaspoon baking soda. Drink every 2-3 hours and each glass was to be taken with 3 caps of calcium – magnesium taurate If symptoms in the head, sinuses, chest, glands,–neck, throat, they were to add ¼-teaspoon of cream of tartar to the mixture.–Don’t shower for at least 4 hours after the bath. Bathing in the evening is more effective Please don’t mix the different bath ingredients
Alternate the baths on different evenings or one bath in the morning and the other at night. In more severe cases a baking soda bath in the morning and Clorox bath at night may be useful.
Selenium DNA protection -Lycopene antioxidant protection of DNA-Sulphurophane from brassica brussel sprouts and cabbage DNA-Protection –NAC, N-Acetyl Cysteine -Reduced L-Glutathione- SAMe S-Adenosyl Methionine - Polyphenon – FirstLine-Defense Caps –Longevinex – Red Wine Extract 30 capsules Polyphenol Antioxidant Alpha lipoic acid with 12 to 20 Times power with Alpha R-Lipoic (BioGenesis) Reishi mushrooms and Beta Glucans – Aloe Beta 1,3 Glucans Ambrotose – Arabinogalatan and Manapol 1,3 Beta Poly Manose - Alkalinizers to Remove Uranium and other Radioisotopes: EO Electrolyzed Water TriSalts – Ecological Formulas BioAlkalinizer – BioGenesis Buffered Vitamin C – Ca, Mg, Zn Ascorbates