Acidic Microenvironments in Tumors Aid Tumor Cell Survival, Researchers Find

 

ScienceDaily (Sep. 6, 2012) — Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and colleagues at the University of South Florida and Wayne State University have discovered that tumor cell survival relies on adaptation to acidic conditions in the tumor microenvironment. Their research investigating the effects of acidity on breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines revealed the importance of autophagy in acidic microenvironments and suggests that a successful treatment strategy might be based on this autophagic dependence.

The study appears as the cover story for the Aug. 15 issue of Cancer Research, a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research.

“Cancer progression is a multistep process strongly influenced by the physical properties of the tumor microenvironment,” said Robert J. Gillies, Ph.D., corresponding author of the study and chair of Moffitt’s Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism. “Both low oxygen and high acidity can be cytotoxic. Our research suggests that adaptation to these stressful conditions involves autophagy allowing cancer cells to survive, proliferate and eventually metastasize to secondary sites.”

According to the authors, not much is known about cell survival mechanisms under acidic conditions, but it has been demonstrated that acidosis can alter gene expression leading to cell types that are adapted for growth and survival in low pH conditions. Identifying low pH survival mechanisms would “give further insight into tumor progression and potentially introduce novel therapeutic strategies,” researchers said.

In this study, the researchers tested cancer cell lines under acidic conditions to learn more about autophagy and cellular adaptation. They noted that normal cells in the acidic environment can respond to acidic stress by increasing cell death pathways, thus introducing the need for survival and adaptive mechanisms by cancer cells.

The researchers also noted that their experiments were carried out under atmospheric oxygen levels and they found that the cell’s stress response could lead to chronic autophagy even when nutrients and oxygen were in adequate supply.

“We found that cells subjected to transient and chronic low pH growth conditions demonstrate elevated markers for autophagy and are dependent on this process for prolonged survival in acidic environments,” explained Jonathan W. Wojtkowiak, lead author of the study and postdoctoral fellow at Moffitt. “A hallmark of cancer is the ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis. Autophagy supports this by playing a tumor promoter and survival role under certain circumstances during different stages of tumorogenesis.”

Their study demonstrated the importance of autophagy in low pH-adapted breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines and the dependence of these cells on autophagy for survival to acidic tumor microenvironment. According to the researchers, they identified a potential therapeutic strategy of using an autophagy inhibitor, one that does not affect cells under neutral conditions.

Funding for the study came from National Institutes of Health grants R01 CA077575, U54 CA143970 and R01 CA 131990

Heal your thyroid by banishing inflammation, boosting immunity and improving digestive health

NaturalNews) Thyroid hormones regulate other hormones, including the adrenal glands’ adrenaline production. Thyroid gland hormones also influence cellular metabolism, digestion, libido, and overall energy.

There are three maladies involving the thyroid. Not everyone knows he or she has a thyroid issue even while exhibiting low energy or the inability to lose weight. One is an autoimmune disease and the other two are conditions.

The disease is known as Hashimoto’s disease, which actually slowly destroys the thyroid while potentially creating both conditions. In addition to both conditions alternating with Hashimoto’s disease, a swollen thyroid or goiter which becomes evident.

The two conditions are hypothyroidism, not enough hormone production or utlization, and the other is hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid that causes too much hormone production.

Hypothyroidism is the more common condition with its symptoms of low energy, fatigue, low libido, overweight problems and sensitivity to cold.

Hyperthyroidism can lead to nervousness, restlessness, manic behavior, and difficulty concentrating. Goiter and weight loss can also manifest. Pre-Nazi Germany used sodium fluoride to reduce the excessive hormone production of hyperthyroid patients.

Now, fluoride is in over 75 percent of USA’s public water supplies, to keep American citizens dumb and docile with decreased thyroid hormone production.

It’s a good idea to eliminate the possibility of Hashimoto’s disease before pursuing hypothyroid solutions because the solutions for hypothyroidism are actually dangerous for those with Hashimoto’s disease.

Hypothyroidism signs and remedies

Hypothyroidism may be the most common hormonal deficiency in the Western world. It can even occur when the thyroid does produce enough thyroid hormones that are not utilized properly. That’s known as thyroid hormone resistance, which produces the same symptoms as hypothyroidism.

Many who think they have fibromyalgia may simply have one of these two manifestations of hypothyroidism. According to Dr. John Lowe, conventional testing can fall short of diagnosing hypothyroidism, especially for those with thyroid hormone resistance.

That’s because the T3, T4, and TH hormone counts can appear normal with someone experiencing thyroid hormone resistance. Also, allopathic endocrinologists often have a low expectation of normal. When it comes to remedying thyroid hormone resistance, the high amounts of thyroid hormone Dr. Lowe recommends shock the average endocrinologist.

Dr. Lowe has discovered that treating fibromyalgia complaints the same as hypothyroidism works very well. He uses an additional TRH (thyroid releasing hormone) test with symptom observations.

A simple self-administered test would be to take your temperature immediately upon waking up from a regular night’s sleep. A low temperature indicates probable thyroid hormone deficiency, according to Donna Gates of Body Ecology website.

Here is an abbreviated list of other symptoms, most of which resemble fibromyalgia.

* Fatigue mistaken as fibromyalgia
* Unable to lose or stop gaining weight
* Feeling cold easily and often
* Dry skin, eyes, or hair
* Excess muscle tension
* Low immunity
* Low basal body temperature
* Delayed tendon reflex, when the foot returns position slowly after tapping the Achilles heel

Dr. Lowe’s complete list of symptoms can be found here: (http://www.drlowe.com/geninfo/hyposymptoms.htm)

It’s common for holistic health practitioners to recommend a quality iodine supplement or seaweed consumption. Iodine is thyroid food. They also recommend various natural thyroid hormone supplements.

It makes sense that increased fibromyalgia incidents coincide with a rise in iodine deficiency since iodine was taken out of table salt. Increasing iodine or using thyroid hormone supplements will help a thyroid that’s hormone deficient.

Additionally, a comprehensive metabolic approach is required that could also prove helpful for Hoshimoto’s disease.

Avoid inflammation causing processed foods and pharmaceutical drugs. Eat organically produced whole vegetables, nuts, legumes, fruits and grains (some say eliminate grains). Hydrate with non-fluoridated water, exercise, and stress less. (http://www.naturalnews.com/032129_fluoridation_intelligence.html)

Sources for this article included:

http://bodyecology.com/articles/low_thyroid_symptoms.php

http://bodyecology.com

http://bodyecology.com

http://thyroid.about.com/cs/hypothyroidism/a/hashivshypo.htm

Researchers Identify Changes in Cholesterol Metabolic Pathways

 

ScienceDaily (June 7, 2012) — A new study from the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine has identified molecular changes responsible for abnormal cholesterol production and metabolism in the livers of patients with a common liver condition, and these changes may explain the severity of a patient’s liver disease and risks to their heart health.

It is estimated that a third of Americans have a fatty liver. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a very common liver condition. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, the more aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is associated with increased cardiac risk and liver-related mortality.

The VCU findings may provide researchers with potential new targets for treatment and also allow clinicians to further refine how they assess cardiovascular risk and develop ways to reduce it in individuals with a more aggressive form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH.

In the study, published in the May issue of Cell Metabolism, the team has shown that there is not only increased production of cholesterol but a decreased expression of the receptor that takes up cholesterol from the blood. This would be expected to both enhance cholesterol output from the liver and reduce its removal, thereby making it more available to enter blood vessels and contribute to cardiovascular disease. The liver not only makes cholesterol, but also takes up cholesterol from the blood.

“This indicates that there is excessive cholesterol production in the liver when one develops fatty liver disease,” said lead investigator Arun Sanyal, M.D., professor and chair in the Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition in the VCU School of Medicine.

“This may be important both to drive the disease towards cirrhosis and to increase the risks of heart disease in those with fatty liver disease,” said Sanyal.

Sanyal collaborated with VCU colleagues in the VCU Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the Department of Surgery and the Department of Pathology.

The work was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health, grant numbers: 5R01DK081410-03, K24 DK 02755 and T32 DK-007150-33.

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Genetic Pathway Impacting the Spread of Cancer Cells Discovered

ScienceDaily (May 3, 2012) — In a new study from Lawson Health Research Institute, Dr. Joseph Torchia has identified a new genetic pathway influencing the spread of cancer cells. The discovery of this mechanism could lead to new avenues for treatment. Regular cell division is regulated by methylation, a series of chemical changes. Methylation modifies DNA to ensure cells divide at a healthy, balanced rate. In cancer, the methylation process is unbalanced, causing cells to resist regulation and divide uncontrollably.

 

Research suggests changes in genetics play a role in this process, yet little is known about the mechanism. In a new study led by Dr. Torchia and his colleagues, a hormone called Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) is starting to show the answers. Using genetic sequencing, they analyzed the effects of TGF-β on DNA methylation to reveal a never-before- seen pathway.

When TGF-β comes into contact with a cell it activates the tumor-suppressing gene, which stops the cells from dividing. According to Dr. Torchia’s group, ZNF217, a cancer-causing gene, can interfere with this process by binding to the DNA. This prevents the tumour-suppressing genes from activating, and the cells continue to divide.

These results characterize the dynamic processes underlying cell division, suggesting genetic influencers must be balanced to keep cell division under control. Most importantly, they provide hope for new cancer therapies. “This link between methylation and TGF-β has never been shown before,” Dr. Torchia says. “If we understand how methylation is regulated, and identify the machinery that’s involved, we may be able to target some of the machinery therapeutically and turn these genes back on to fight the cancer.”

Physical Culture Main Page

                                                              Physical Culture

The first idea of a name for this site was to be called something like Modern Physical Culture. Some people might be confused by the term physical culture as it is not often used these days but once-upon-a-time physical culture represented health, strength and longevity. In the 1800’s and early 1900’s people would lift weights, eat whole foods, move around lots every day and they stayed lean, strong and robust well into their 80’s and even 90’s. Staying strong is paramount to good health especially as we age. The lack of exercise and movement in general amongst today’s society along with food that no longer resembles food, and a million man made chemicals in everything we eat drink or breathe, means that the baby boomers from the 1950’s and 60’s are now feeling the pace of life. Modern diseases is escalating beyond control and the health sector looks like it is about to collapse, we have the new generations being born in the US right now supposedly  to be the first generation not expected to out live their own parents, so it’s time to go back to basics.

Choose not to end up as a drug laced vegetable dependant on your family and society to look after you as you dribble your way through the last decade or two of your life on this earth. Remember simply eating real foods and participating in some kind of weight baring exercise is essential to living a full existence and avoiding disease, especially the kinds of diseases that are associated with old age. Many diseases seen as ‘the norm’ or common when we age are not actually ‘normal’ to getting old when you look at the very few tribal people and traditional living societies still around today.

Join the Physical Culture revolution today and live as long as you can as well as you can and enjoy every second you have on this planet