Tony Pantalleresco Radio Show Notes – Week Ending 25th of August 2013

Script of the Show August 24 2013

Topics covered :

De-Pesticiding anything
Tatoo Dyes—Ingredients

The Liquid Part of Tattoo Ink

Comprehensive List Of Companies That Uses Aborted Fetal Cells As Flavor

Evolution On the Inside Track: How Viruses in Gut Bacteria Change Over Time

Sudden Decline in Testosterone May Cause Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms in Men

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De-Pesticiding anything…

To remove pesticides from fruits and Veggies and especially for the purpose of cleaning berries which even if organic are the highest sources of super bacterias that are very powerful (never mind the pesticides if got the inorganic ones)… all you need to do it put the veggies/fruits/berries into a container and fill with water and put in one tbl of 35% Hydrogen Peroxide or ½ cup of regular hydrogen peroxide you buy at any store… http://www.dfwx.com/h2o2.htm for the 35% food grade hydrogen peroxide… this stuff is a pain in the butt and will bleach your hands quick, so handle with care, I put this stuff into a dropper bottle I put in fridge and take for use with any protocol or heavy metals of lead and/or arsenic I’m trying to remove… my protocol for this is 3 drops 3x/day in 2 to 3 cups of water, for 3 weeks, is usually enough, but Barry Carter mentioned on the call that he does this protocol only once a day like so – 1 drop first day, 2 drops next day, adding one drop each day til at 20 drops, always mix with plenty of water, like 3 cups and do for 3 weeks – til at 20 drops and that’s usually the end of lead and arsenic poisoning…. ( or could just do the mini beet protocol for a couple months, but this is faster, though the mini beet protocol is much more pervasive and will catch all lead and arsenic in all cells and bone no matter how long ago they were deposited there!) –Why 35% – b/c it is purer form of H2O2 than store bought 3%…

2007 The best de-pesticider in the world is a 99.9% pesticide and herbicide and insecticide remover… it’s $1000 but after this many years it might only be $750 if we’re lucky so I will definitely go through my files, look it up again.—2011 Luckily an American company came along and spent $10million on FDA and EPA passes and got the USA version of this type device in, will kill all parasites and all filth on outside and through body of the fruit & veggies (if you wash the wax off first), makes them last longer too, great for removal of pesticides etc… $250 plus shipping, whewww, lot better than $550 that the Japanese one is going for and wow is this 10x better looking but exact same theory… let me know if you would like one…. Robert von 1-940-233-0484 Dallas TX USA—Directions more exact… for say a container of about 3 inches high, 7 inches wide, and 1 foot long… filled with water I put in a couple of sprays of fruit and veggie or a alcohol or Essential Oil to wash (not to de-pesticide but for removal of wax that would hinder de-pesticiding, and start with hot water adding to container then veggies, so that the hot water and the fruit wash will wash the veggies/fruits while filling with water thus melting and removing waxing… then I put in ¼ cup of 3% H2O2, and wait 20 mins and you are done… for half a sink I would put in ½ a cup worth and for full sink worth of veggies and water I would put in full cup of 3%…

One more note: this is a great way to de-pesticide but you are NOT getting rid of the chemical exposure that has transformed your veggies and fruits… so for those fortunate enough to buy nothing but organic, that is awesome and that is the best, and for those not so fortunate enough to buy organic only, then this is a way to help yourself out, b/c I do this wash when I cannot find organic, and the second I’m home with groceries, if any with pesticides, I fill up sink and go at it… then let them all dry – put everything into the fridge… and I’m good to go. (note… anything I de-pesticide that has an easily removeable skin, esp. an apple or say even a squash, I will peel it anyway just for overkill b/4 I eat or cook it, respectively) Again this is not as effective at 99.9% removal as the machine I mentioned, but it is a great and amazingly cheap alternative

For those with a little more knowledge and background, I will put in another note: yes, chemicals etc in the fruits/veggies that are not organic force a chemical change in structure of the foods you eat even if remove 100% of all the pesticides afterwards, there is still the messed up “nature” of these inorganics to take into consideration, but for those on limited budget these inorganics will NOT stop you from being healed of your diseases etc…for those that have the money, buy 100% organic.

35% – for those that get themselves bleached in the process of pouring 35% H2O2, b/c did not use gloves… no problem, just put on some olive oil immediately and then wash hands with soap and water 3 times then put on more olive oil… even if hands are white they will no longer burn, or will stop burning within few mins, no worries…you will find the whiteness will continue for a while, no problem, but the burning has totally stopped and within the hour or within a few hours all whiteness is completely gone… if Barry has better alternatives for those who get a little 35% H2O2 on themselves, please let me know as well, thanx so sooo much!

I also use this as a healthy alternative to bleach when need to bleach clothing instead of using Clorox or etc… so 35% makes for excellent and superior bleach alternative…also good if wash clothes with vinegar and 35% H2O2…

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Tatoo Dyes—Ingredients

Pigment bases
Manufacturers are not required to reveal their ingredients or conduct trials, and recipes may be proprietary. Professional inks may be made from iron oxides (rust), metal salts, plastics.[6] Homemade or traditional tattoo inks may be made from pen ink, soot, dirt, blood, or other ingredients.[3][7]

CHeavy metals used for colors includeC mercury (red); C lead (yellow, green, white); Ccadmium (red, orange, yellow); Cnickel (black); zinc (yellow, white); chromium (green); cobalt (blue); C aluminium (green, violet); Ctitanium (white); copper (blue, green); iron (brown, red, black); and Cbarium (white). Metal oxides used includeC ferrocyanide andC ferricyanide (yellow, red, green, blue). Organic chemicals used include azo-chemicals (orange, brown, yellow, green, violet) and naptha-derived chemicals (red). Carbon (soot or ash) is also used for black. Other compounds used as pigments include antimony, Carsenic, Cberyllium, calcium, Clithium, selenium, and sulphur.[5][7]–Tattoo ink manufacturers typically blend the heavy metal pigments and/or use lightening agents (such as lead or titanium) to reduce production costs

Black Pigments

Traditional monochrome tattoos are still very popular, making black one of the most common colors of tattoo ink. Black pigment typically consists of magnetite crystals, carbon, powdered jet, bone black, wustite or logwood extract. These ingredients cover the range of typical pigment sources, including metal salts, traditional minerals, vegetable dyes and modern organics and plastics. However, according to a study published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology in 2009, few cases of adverse reactions to tattoo ink, including allergic responses, have been linked to black pigments.

Black henna
Health Canada has advised against the use of “black henna” temporary tattoo ink which containsC para-phenylenediamine (PPD), an ingredient in hair dyes. Black henna is normally applied externally in temporary Mehandi applications, rather than being inserted beneath the skin in a permanent tattoo.–Allergic reactions to PPD include rashes, contact dermatitis, itching, blisters, open sores, scarring and other potentially harmful effects.[2]

Brown or Flesh Tone Pigments

Brown and flesh tone tattoo inks derive their pigments from ochre, or ferric oxides that are sometimes mixed with clay. Although naturally yellow in color, ochre develops a reddish hue when heated and dried.

Red, Orange and Yellow Pigments

While the “warm” colors of red, yellow and orange are similar in hue, they derive from a wide variety of ingredients. Red pigment can consist of cinnabar (mercury sulfide) and cadmium red (both known to be toxic), iron oxide (otherwise known as common “rust”) or napthol, which has a lower incidence of adverse reactions. Orange pigment is made from disazopyrazolone, disazodiarylide or cadmium seleno-sulfide, which are fairly stable organic substance. Yellow pigment is made from curcuma (found in ginger plants such as tumeric), cadmium yellow, ochres, disazodiarylide or chrome yellow.

Green, Blue and Violet Pigments

The “cool” colors of green, blue and violet also derive from a variety of sources. Green pigments are generally metallic or mineral in nature and are sometimes formed by mixing yellow and blue pigments. Sources of green pigments can include chromium oxide, ferro- and ferricyanides, lead chromate, malachite, monoazo pigment and phthalocyanines. Blue pigments include azure and cobalt blue, cobalt aluminate and copper phtalocyanine, which the FDA considers safe enough for use in infant products and contact lenses. Violet pigments include manganese ammonium pyrophosphate, dioxazine/carbazole, quinacridone and aluminum salts. Note that some violet pigments may tend to fade and shift in hue after long exposure to sunlight.

White Pigments

White pigments can be used in isolation to create white tattoo ink, or they can lighten the shade of another color. White pigments are often based on lead carbonate, barium sulfate, titanium dioxide or zinc oxide

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The Liquid Part of Tattoo Ink

Tattoo ink consists of pigment and a carrier. The carrier may be a single substance or a mixture. The purpose of the carrier is to keep the pigment evenly distributed in a fluid matrix, to inhibit the growth of pathogens, to prevent clumping of pigment, and to aid in application to the skin. Among the safest and most common ingredients used to make the liquid are:
ethyl alcohol (ethanol)
purified water
witch hazel
Listerine
propylene glycol
glycerine (glycerol)
However, many other substances have been and may be used, including:
denatured alcohols (are toxic and can burn the skin)
other alcohols (methyl alcohol or methanol and isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol are commonly used, although they are toxic)
ethylene glycol (antifreeze, which is toxic)
aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and gluteraldehyde (highly toxic)
various surfactants or detergents
There are many other substances that could be found in an ink. A tattooist has the choice of mixing his or her own ink (mixing dry dispersed pigment and a carrier solution) or purchasing what are called predispersed pigments. Many predispersed pigments are as safe or safer than inks mixed by the tattooist. However, the ingredient list need not be disclosed, so any chemical could be present in the ink. The best advice is to make sure the ink supplier and the particular ink has a long history of safety. Although I have applied the word ‘toxic’ to many substances listed on the pigment and carrier list, that is an oversimplification. Some of these chemicals are mutagens, carcinogens, teratogens, toxins, or participate in other reactions in the body, some of which may not show up for decades.
Another interesting factoid concerning alcohol is that it is known as a ‘promoter’. In biomedical parlance, this means alcohol works synergistically with mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens to make them more likely to cause harm than they would by themselves. If any hazardous substances are present in the ink, alcohol helps them into the body and then increases the chance that they may cause mutation or disease, not just at the site of the tattoo, but throughout the body
Compostion of Tattoo Pigments
Color
Materials
Comment
Black
Iron Oxide (Fe3O4)
Iron Oxide (FeO)

Carbon

Logwood

Natural black pigment is made from magnetite crystals, powdered jet, wustite, bone black,and amorphous carbon from combustion (soot). Black pigment is commonly made into India ink.
Logwood is a heartwood extract from Haematoxylon campechisnum, found in Central America and the West Indies.

Brown
Ochre
Ochre is composed of iron (ferric) oxides mixed with clay. Raw ochre is yellowish. When dehydrated through heating, ochre changes to a reddish color.
Red
Cinnabar (HgS)
Cadmium Red (CdSe)

Iron Oxide (Fe2O3)

Napthol-AS pigment

Iron oxide is also known as common rust. Cinnabar and cadmium pigments are highly toxic. Napthol reds are synthesized from Naptha. Fewer reactions have been reported with naphthol red than the other pigments, but all reds carry risks of allergic or other reactions.
Orange
disazodiarylide and/or disazopyrazolone
cadmium seleno-sulfide

The organics are formed from the condensation of 2 monoazo pigment molecules. They are large molecules with good thermal stability and colorfastness.
Flesh
Ochres (iron oxides mixed with clay)

Yellow
Cadmium Yellow (CdS, CdZnS)
Ochres

Curcuma Yellow

Chrome Yellow (PbCrO4, often mixed with PbS)

disazodiarylide

Curcuma is derived from plants of the ginger family; aka tumeric or curcurmin. Reactions are commonly associated with yellow pigments, in part because more pigment is needed to achieve a bright color.
Green
Chromium Oxide (Cr2O3), called Casalis Green or Anadomis Green
Malachite [Cu2(CO3)(OH)2]

Ferrocyanides and Ferricyanides

Lead chromate

Monoazo pigment

Cu/Al phthalocyanine

Cu phthalocyanine

The greens often include admixtures, such as potassium ferrocyanide (yellow or red) and ferric ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue)
Blue
Azure Blue
Cobalt Blue

Cu-phthalocyanine

Blue pigments from minerals include copper (II) carbonate (azurite), sodium aluminum silicate (lapis lazuli), calcium copper silicate (Egyptian Blue), other cobalt aluminum oxides and chromium oxides. The safest blues and greens are copper salts, such as copper pthalocyanine. Copper pthalocyanine pigments have FDA approval for use in infant furniture and toys and contact lenses. The copper-based pigments are considerably safer or more stable than cobalt or ultramarine pigments.
Violet
Manganese Violet (manganese ammonium pyrophosphate)
Various aluminum salts

Quinacridone

Dioxazine/carbazole

Some of the purples, especially the bright magentas, are photoreactive and lose their color after prolonged exposure to light. Dioxazine and carbazole result in the most stable purple pigments.
White
Lead White (Lead Carbonate)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)

Barium Sulfate (BaSO4)

Zinc Oxide

Some white pigments are derived from anatase or rutile. White pigment may be used alone or to dilute the intensity of other pigments. Titanium oxides are one of the least reactive white pigme
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Comprehensive List Of Companies That Uses Aborted Fetal Cells As Flavor

(KipNews) Children of God for Life is calling on the public to boycott products of major food companies that are partnering with Senomyx, a biotech company that produces artificial flavor enhancers, unless the company stops using aborted fetal cell lines to test their products.

In 2010, the pro-life organization wrote to Senomyx CEO Kent Snyder, pointing out that moral options for testing their food additives could and should be used.

But when Senomyx ignored their letter, they wrote to the companies Senomyx listed on their website as “collaborators” warning them of public backlash and threatened boycott. Food giants Pepsico, Kraft Foods, Campbell Soup, Solae and Nestlé are the primary targets of the boycott, though Senomyx boasts other international partners on their website.

Senomyx website states that “The company’s key flavor programs focus on the discovery and development of savory, sweet and salt flavor ingredients that are intended to allow for the reduction of MSG, sugar and salt in food and beverage products.…Using isolated human taste receptors, we created proprietary taste receptor-based assay systems that provide a biochemical or electronic readout when a flavor ingredient interacts with the receptor.”

Senomyx notes their collaborators provide them research and development funding plus royalties on sales of products using their flavor ingredients.

“What they do not tell the public is that they are using HEK 293 – human embryonic kidney cells taken from an electively aborted baby to produce those receptors”, stated Debi Vinnedge, Executive Director for Children of God for Life, a pro-life watch dog group that has been monitoring the use of aborted fetal material in medical products and cosmetics for years.

“They could have easily chosen COS (monkey) cells, Chinese Hamster Ovary cells, insect cells or other morally obtained human cells expressing the G protein for taste receptors”, Vinnedge added.

In writing to their collaborators, it took three letters before Nestlé finally admitted the truth about their relationship with Senomyx, noting the cell line was “well established in scientific research”.

After hearing Ms Vinnedge speak publicly on the problem, angry consumers began writing the companies. Both Pepsico and Campbell Soup immediately responded.

Shockingly, Pepsico wrote: “We hope you are reassured to learn that our collaboration with Senomyx is strictly limited to creating lower-calorie, great-tasting beverages for consumers. This will help us achieve our commitment to reduce added sugar per serving by 25% in key brands in key markets over the next decade and ultimately help people live healthier lives.”—Campbell Soup was more concerned in their response: “Every effort is made to use the finest ingredients and develop the greatest selection of products, all at a great value. With this in mind, it must be said that the trust we have cultivated and developed over the years with our consumers is not worth compromising to cut costs or increase profit margins.”–While Campbell did not state they would change their methods, still their response, gave Vinnedge hope. “If enough people voice their outrage and intent to boycott these consumer products, it can be highly effective in convincing Senomyx to change their methods”, she noted.

Click here to read the response letters from Pepsico, Campbell Soup and Nestlé letters (Letter 1, 2, 3)

Need proof of Senomyx use of aborted fetal cell lines?

Following is the link to the on-line article for their patent on sweet receptors (they filed several separate patents for each of the different taste receptors): http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC123709/

As it is lengthy and technical, we recommend you simply do a search in the document for HEK-293.

HEK CELL (Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells), also often referred to as HEK 293, 293 cells, or less precisely as HEK cells are a specific cell line originally derived from human embryonic kidney cells grown in tissue culture. HEK 293 cells are very easy to grow and transfect very readily and have been widely-used in cell biology research for many years. They are also used by the biotechnology industry to produce therapeutic proteins and viruses for gene therapy.

Below is a list of products that contain HEK cells.

HEK cell Products; http://www.cogforlife.org/fetalproductsall.pdf

Pepsi Beverages on the Boycott

• All Pepsi soft drinks
• Sierra Mist soft drinks
• Mountain Dew soft drinks
• Mug root beer and other soft drinks
• No Fear beverages
• Ocean Spray beverages
• Seattle’s Best Coffee
• Tazo beverages
• AMP Energy beverages
• Aquafina water
• Aquafina flavored beverages
• DoubleShot energy beverages
• Frappuccino beverages
• Lipton tea and other beverages
• Propel beverages
• SoBe beverages
• Gatorade beverages
• Fiesta Miranda beverages
• Tropicana juices and beverages

Other Senomyx Partner Products

At this time we are formally boycotting PepsiCo products, however many have asked us for lists of the other companies involved with Senomyx and what products are involved.
Unless we know a certain product or brand name specifically, we intend to boycott all of the company’s products.

Nestles Products
• All coffee creamers
• Maggi Brand instant soups, bouillon cubes, ketchups, sauces, seasoning, instant noodles

Kraft – Cadbury Adams LLC Products:
Gum
• Black Jack chewing gum
• Bubbaloo bubble gum
• Bubblicious bubble gum
• Chiclets
• Clorets
• Dentyne
• Freshen Up Gum
• Sour Cherry Gum (Limited)
• Sour Apple Gum (Limited)
• Stride
• Trident

Cadbury Adams LLC Candies
• Sour Cherry Blasters
• Fruit Mania
• Bassett’s Liquorice All sorts
• Maynards Wine Gum
• Swedish Fish
• Swedish Berries
• Juicy Squirts
• Original Gummies
• Fuzzy Peach
• Sour Chillers
• Sour Patch Kids
• Mini Fruit Gums

Other Cadbury Adams LLC Products
• Certs breath mints
• Halls Cough Drops

Not part of Senomyx – N eocutis Products
This company produces anti wrinkle creams that contain cells from a 14 week gestation aborted malebaby. Following is the list of the creams, but we recommend a full boycott of all Neocutis Products.

Bio-Gel Prevedem Journee
Bio-Serum Lumiere
Bio Restorative Skin Cream

Vaccines Containing HEK Cells And the Manufacturers:
MMR II (Merck)
ProQuad (MMR + Chickenpox – Merck)
Varivax (Chickenpox – Merck)
Pentacel (Polio + DTaP + HiB – Sanofi Pasteur)
Vaqta (Hepatitis-A – Merck)
Havrix (Hepatitis-A – Glaxo SmithKline)
Twinrix (Hepatitis-A and B combo – Glaxo)
Zostavax (Shingles – Merck)
Imovax (Rabies – Sanofi Pasteur)

Other medicines:
Pulmozyme (Cystic Fibrosis – Genetech)
Enbrel (Rheumatoid Arthritis – Amgen)

Note: Moral options exist for Rabies, Polio,
Rheumatoid Arthritis. Separate moral options
currently not available for Measles and Mumps.

source; http://birthofanewearth.blogspot.com viahttp://www.cogforlife.org/

Back in January, Oklahoma Senator Ralph Shortey proposed legislation to ban the production of aborted fetal cell-derived flavor chemicals in his home state. If passed, S.B. 1418 would also reportedly ban the sale of any products that contain flavor chemicals derived from human fetal tissue, which includes Pepsi products as well as products produced by Kraft and Nestle (http://www.naturalnews.com)
.Biotech company using cell lines from aborted babies in food enhancement testing http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/biotech-company-using-cell-lines-from-aborted-babies-in-food-enhancement-te

Pro-life groups call for Pepsi boycott over aborted fetal cell lines

http://www.lifesitenews.com/news/pro-life-groups-call-for-pepsi-boycott-over-aborted-fetal-cell-lines

Oklahoma lawmaker wants to stop Pepsi from using aborted fetus cells in soda flavoring research (NaturalNews)
http://www.naturalnews.com/034777_Pepsi_aborted_fetus_cells_soda_flavoring.html#ixzz1q5FeKEdL

To Contact PepsiCo:

Jamie Caulfield, Sr. VP
PepsiCo, Inc.
700 Anderson Hill Road
Purchase, NY 10577
(914) 253-2000

Edmund M. Carpenter, Chair, Corporate Development
Campbell Soup
1 Campbell Place
Camden, NJ 08103-1701
1-800-257-8443

Pro-life groups joining CGL in the boycott to date are: Life Issues Institute, American Life League, Colorado Right to Life, American Right to Life, Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute, ALL Arizona, Central Nebraskans for Life, Pro-Life Waco, Houston Coalition for Life, Mother and Unborn Baby Fox Valley, Womankind, Billboards for Life, Movement for a Better America, Defenders of the Unborn, Focus Pregnancy Help Center, Idaho Chooses Life, EMC Frontline Pregnancy Centers of NY, Four Seasons for Life, CREDO, Life Choices, STOPP Dallas, CA Right To Life, Human Life Alliance, International Right to Life Federation, Operation Rescue, Pro-Life Nation, LifeNews.com, and Mary’s Outreach for Women.

To be clear, the aborted fetal tissue used to make Pepsi’s flavor chemicals does not end up in the final product sold to customers, according to reports — it is used, instead, to evaluate how actual human taste receptors respond to these chemical flavorings. But the fact that Pepsi uses them at all when viable, non-human alternatives are available illustrates the company’s blatant disregard for ethical and moral concerns in the matter.

Origins of HEK 293 Cells

HEK 293 cells were generated in the early 70s by transformation of cultures of normal human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus 5 DNA in Alex Van der Eb’s laboratory in Leiden, The Netherlands.

The human embryonic kidney cells were obtained from an aborted fetus and originally cultured by Van der Eb himself; the transformation by adenovirus was performed by Frank Graham who published his findings in the late 1970s after he left Leiden for McMaster University in Canada.

They are called HEK for human embryonic kidney, while the number 293 comes from Graham’s habit of numbering his experiments; the original HEK 293 cell clone was simply the product of his 293rd experiment.

Other References:

HEK 293 Transfection and Selection Data @ Cell-culture Database
HEK 293 Database
293 Cells (CRL-1573) in the ATCC database
Transcript of FDA meeting, in which, starting page 77, Dr. Alex Van der Eb describes in detail the origin of HEK 293 cell .pdf
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Evolution On the Inside Track: How Viruses in Gut Bacteria Change Over Time

Phylogenetic tree of microphages detected in PNAS study and other studies. The four microphage contigs with the highest substitution rates observed in the PNAS study are shown in large black lettering. The scale bar indicates the proportion of amino acid substitutions within the 919 amino acid major coat protein, which was aligned to make the tree. (Credit: Frederick Bushman, PhD, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania; PNAS)

July 26, 2013 — Humans are far more than merely the sum total of all the cells that form the organs and tissues. The digestive tract is also home to a vast colony of bacteria of all varieties, as well as the myriad viruses that prey upon them. Because the types of bacteria carried inside the body vary from person to person, so does this viral population, known as the virome. By closely following and analyzing the virome of one individual over two-and-a-half years, researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, led by professor of Microbiology Frederic D. Bushman, Ph.D., have uncovered some important new insights on how a viral population can change and evolve — and why the virome of one person can vary so greatly from that of another. The evolution and variety of the virome can affect susceptibility and resistance to disease among individuals, along with variable effectiveness of drugs.–Their work was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Most of the virome consists of bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria rather than directly attacking their human hosts. However, the changes that bacteriophages wreak upon bacteria can also ultimately affect humans. “Bacterial viruses are predators on bacteria, so they mold their populations,” says Bushman. “Bacterial viruses also transport genes for toxins, virulence factors that modify the phenotype of their bacterial host.” In this way, an innocent, benign bacterium living inside the body can be transformed by an invading virus into a dangerous threat. At 16 time points over 884 days, Bushman and his team collected stool samples from a healthy male subject and extracted viral particles using several methods. They then isolated and analyzed DNA contigs (contiguous sequences) using ultra-deep genome sequencing . “We assembled raw sequence data to yield complete and partial genomes and analyzed how they changed over two and a half years,” Bushman explains. The result was the longest, most extensive picture of the workings of the human virome yet obtained. The researchers found that while approximately 80 percent of the viral types identified remained mostly unchanged over the course of the study, certain viral species changed so substantially over time that, as Bushman notes, “You could say we observed speciation events.”This was particularly true in the Microviridae group, which are bacteriophages with single-stranded circular DNA genomes. Several genetic mechanisms drove the changes, including substitution of base chemicals; diversity-generating retroelements, in which reverse transcriptase enzymes introduce mutations into the genome; and CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), in which pieces of the DNA sequences of bacteriophages are incorporated as spacers in the genomes of bacteria. Such rapid evolution of the virome was perhaps the most surprising finding for the research team. Bushman notes that “different people have quite different bacteria in their guts, so the viral predators on those bacteria are also different. However, another reason people are so different from each other in terms of their virome, emphasized in this paper, is that some of the viruses, once inside a person, are changing really fast. So some of the viral community diversifies and becomes unique within each individual.”–Since humans acquire the bacterial population — and its accompanying virome — after birth from food and other environmental factors, it’s logical that the microbial population living within each of us would differ from person to person. But this work, say the researchers, demonstrates that another major explanatory factor is the constant evolution of the virome within the body. That fact has important implications for the ways in which susceptibility and resistance to disease can differ among individuals, as well as the effectiveness of various drugs and other treatments.–The research was supported by Human Microbiome Roadmap Demonstration Project (UH2DK083981) the Penn Genome Frontiers Institute, and the University of Pennsylvania Center for AIDS Research (CFAR; P30 Al 045008). Samuel Minot, Alexandra Bryson, Christel Chehoud, Gary D. Wu, James D. Lewis, all from Penn, are co-authors. Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Journal Reference: S. Minot, A. Bryson, C. Chehoud, G. D. Wu, J. D. Lewis, F. D. Bushman. Rapid evolution of the human gut virome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; 110 (30): 12450 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1300833110

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Sudden Decline in Testosterone May Cause Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms in Men

July 26, 2013 — The results of a new study by neurological researchers at Rush University Medical Center show that a sudden decrease of testosterone, the male sex hormone, may cause Parkinson’s like symptoms in male mice. The findings were recently published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.–One of the major roadblocks for discovering drugs against Parkinson’s disease is the unavailability of a reliable animal model for this disease

“While scientists use different toxins and a number of complex genetic approaches to model Parkinson’s disease in mice, we have found that the sudden drop in the levels of testosterone following castration is sufficient to cause persistent Parkinson’s like pathology and symptoms in male mice,” said Dr. Kalipada Pahan, lead author of the study and the Floyd A. Davis endowed professor of neurology at Rush. “We found that the supplementation of testosterone in the form of 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone (DHT) pellets reverses Parkinson’s pathology in male mice.” “In men, testosterone levels are intimately coupled to many disease processes,” said Pahan. Typically, in healthy males, testosterone level is the maximum in the mid-30s, which then drop about one percent each year. However, testosterone levels may dip drastically due to stress or sudden turn of other life events, which may make somebody more vulnerable to Parkinson’s disease.—“Therefore, preservation of testosterone in males may be an important step to become resistant to Parkinson’s disease,” said Pahan.[F1]–Understanding how the disease works is important to developing effective drugs that protect the brain and stop the progression of Parkinson’s disease. Nitric oxide is an important molecule for our brain and the body.–“However, when nitric oxide is produced within the brain in excess by a protein called inducible nitric oxide synthase, neurons start dying,” said Pahan.–“This study has become more fascinating than we thought,” said Pahan. “After castration, levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide go up in the brain dramatically. Interestingly, castration does not cause Parkinson’s like symptoms in male mice deficient in iNOS gene, indicating that loss of testosterone causes symptoms via increased nitric oxide production.” “Further research must be conducted to see how we could potentially target testosterone levels in human males in order to find a viable treatment,” said Pahan.–Other researchers at Rush involved in this study were Saurabh Khasnavis, PhD, student, Anamitra Ghosh, PhD, student, and Avik Roy, PhD, research assistant professor.–This research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health that received the highest score for its scientific merit in the particular cycle it was reviewed- Parkinson’s is a slowly progressive disease that affects a small area of cells within the mid-brain known as the substantia nigra. Gradual degeneration of these cells causes a reduction in a vital chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine. The decrease in dopamine results in one or more of the classic signs of Parkinson’s disease that includes resting tremor on one side of the body; generalized slowness of movement; stiffness of limbs and gait or balance problems. The cause of the disease is unknown. Both environmental and genetic causes of the disease have been postulated.

Parkinson’s disease affects about 1.2 million patients in the United States and Canada. Although 15 percent of patients are diagnosed before age 50, it is generally considered a disease that targets older adults, affecting one of every 100 persons over the age of 60. This disease appears to be slightly more common in men than women. —Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Rush University Medical Center. –Journal Reference–S. Khasnavis, A. Ghosh, A. Roy, K. Pahan. Castration Induces Parkinson Disease Pathologies in Young Male Mice via Inducible Nitric-oxide Synthase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013; 288 (29): 20843 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.443556

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[F1]Interesting enough the T levels for males are declining due to the phytoestrogen and xenoestrogen exposure and the encouragement of consuming highly contaminated foods that are estrogenically based