Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus by Betadine products & chlorhexidine.
Harbison MA, Hammer SM.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr . 1989;2(1):16-20.
Infectious Disease Section, New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Eleven povidone-iodine-containing products (Betadine) and chlorhexidine gluconate solution were tested for their ability to inactivate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a cell culture system. All Betadine products completely inactivated the virus at povidone-iodine concentrations of greater than or equal to 0.5% (10- to 20-fold dilutions of stock) except for Betadine Lubricating Antiseptic Gel, which required 2.5% for efficacy (1:2 dilution).
The action of three antiseptics/disinfectants against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.
Wood A, Payne D.
J Hosp Infect . 1998 Apr;38(4):283-95.
Results indicate that all products were effective in inactivating the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, whilst being ineffective in inactivating human coronavirusŠ..Four antiseptic/disinfectant solutions with chloroxylenol, benzalkonium chloride, cetrimide/chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were also assessed for antiviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus in the presence of whole human blood. All four solutions proved to be effective within 1 min despite the cytotoxic nature of the compounds to the detection system. —Note from Mark Konlee: A few years ago I talked with 2 persons from different parts of the country who have been on an unusual diet for several years with striking similarities and results. They ate no meat and ate seafood, fish and or sea vegetables daily for several years. They were also both HIV positive and non-progressors and neither person had used prescribed antiviral drugs for HIV. Could the iodine and other trace minerals in the seafood they consumed have had something to do with their status as non-progressors? Could eating sea vegetables and ocean fish daily help stop HIV
HOW SMART METERS MAY CAUSE AUTISM AND CANCER
Andrew Goldsworthy July 2011
There is increasing evidence that wireless transmissions have biological effects, some of which are harmful, at levels that may be orders of magnitude below present safety guidelines. These guidelines were drawn up on the assumption that the radiation could only damage living tissues if it generated significant heat. It has since been shown that radiation at much lower levels has direct electrical effects. These are mainly on electrically charged cell membranes, where the low frequency pulses from the modulated microwaves make them vibrate and leak. This can give rise to many “modern illnesses” ranging from electromagnetic hypersensitivity to cancer and disorders of the immune system. The most dramatic increase in the incidence of autism due to damage to the developing brains of the fetus and young children. Modulated microwaves, such as those from cell phones, portable phones, WiFi, baby monitors and wireless smart meters are sources of potentially damaging radiation. The strength of the radiation appears to be less important than the duration and pattern of the exposure, with intermittent and repeated exposure being the most damaging. The strong regular transmissions from wireless smart meters are particularly harmful and more likely to lead to DNA damage, cancer and autism.
Sub-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation.
There are thousands of scientific papers showing biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation occurring well below the levels at which them can generate significant heat. Many of these have been reviewed at by expert scientist at www.bioinitiative.org andhttp://www.neilcherry.com/documents.php . They include harmful effects such as damage to DNA in living cells that can lead to cancer, loss of fertility, brain damage due to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier and neuronal hyperactivity leading to autism in children. Many of these effects can be attributed to the loss of structurally important calcium from cell membranes, which makes them leak. This can disrupt normal metabolism and also release DNase (which destroys DNA) from the internal structures (lysosomes) that normally recycle waste into the rest of the cell http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/cell_phone_and_cell.pdf .
Prolonged and intermittent radiation causes more damage
The duration of the radiation seems to be more important than its strength, with the effects being cumulative as more and more cells are damaged. Interestingly, DNA damage from cell phone radiation is greater when the exposure is intermittent (5 minutes on, 10 minutes off) than when continuous (Diem et al 2005). This may be because the cells are constantly adapting and using energy to defend themselves; they drop their guard during the off period and are caught unawares when it goes on again. This constant switching uses more energy, which eventually leaves the cells less able to counteract the effects of the radiation.
Diem et al. (2005) also found that the effect on DNA damage was still greater if the microwaves were pulsed or modulated to carry information (modulation involves sudden stops and starts of the signal, which are even more damaging).
Smart meters, which operate 24/7 and radiate modulated microwaves intermittently, can therefore be expected to be particularly harmful to DNA.
Microwave radiation causes cancer
There is already evidence that heavy cell phone users are more prone to brain cancers. This has resulted in cell phones now being rated by the World Health Organisation as class 2B carcinogens. This rating may later be increased, since brain tumours normally take decades to develop and few people have been regularly using a cell phone for more than a single decade. Particularly worrying is the finding by Hardell and Carlberg (2009 ) that young people were about 5-times more likely to get brain cancer both from cordless and cell phones if they began using them before the age of 20. The regular transmissions from wireless smart meters can be expected to have much the same effect, with younger people being more at risk. This is possibly because their brain structure is still growing and developing and therefore more susceptible to damage leading to cancer.
The effect of microwaves on autism is far worse
The greatest damage from microwaves is when the brain is first developing in the foetus and the very young child, when it can lead to autism. Dr Dietrich Klinghardt has recently shown the relationship between microwaves and autism; a summary of his work can be found athttp://electromagnetichealth.org/media-stories/#Autism .
What is autism?
Autism is in fact a group of life-long disorders (autistic spectrum disorders or ASD) caused by brain malfunctions and is associated with subtle changes in brain anatomy (see Amaral et al. 2008 for a review). The core symptoms are an inability to communicate adequately with others and include abnormal social behaviour, poor verbal and non-verbal communication, unusual and restricted interests, and persistent repetitive behaviour. There are also non-core symptoms, such as an increased risk of epileptic seizures, anxiety and mood disorders. ASD has a strong genetic component, occurs predominantly in males and tends to run in families.
Genetic ASD may be caused by calcium entering neurons
It has been hypothesised that some genetic forms of ASD can be accounted for by known mutations in the genes for ion channels that result in an increased background concentration of calcium in neurons. This would be expected to lead to neuronal hyperactivity, the formation of sometimes unnecessary and inappropriate synapses, which in turn can lead to ASD (Krey and Dolmetsch 2007).
Electromagnetic fields let calcium into neurons too
There has been a 60-fold increase in ASD in recent years, which cannot be accounted for by improvements in diagnostic methods and can only be explained by changes in the environment. This increase corresponds in time to the proliferation of mobile telecommunications, WiFi, and microwave ovens as well as extremely low frequency fields (ELF) from mains wiring and domestic appliances. We can now explain this in terms of electromagnetically-induced membrane leakage leading to brain hyperactivity and abnormal brain development.
Non-ionising radiation makes cell membranes leak
The first effect of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation is to generate small alternating voltages across the cell membranes, which destabilize them and make them leak. This can have all sorts of consequences as unwanted substances diffuse into and out of cells unhindered, and materials in different parts of the cell that are normally kept separate, become mixed.
Why weak fields are more damaging than strong ones
We have known since the work of Suzanne Bawin and her co-workers (Bawin et al. 1975) that modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation that is far too weak to cause significant heating can nevertheless remove calcium ions (positively charged calcium atoms) from cell membranes in the brain. Later, Carl Blackman showed that this also occurs with extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation (ELF) but only within one or more “amplitude windows”, above and below which there is little or no effect (Blackman et al. 1982; Blackman 1990). A proposed molecular mechanism for this can be found in Goldsworthy (2010). In particular, it explains why weak electromagnetic fields can have a greater effect than strong ones and why prolonged exposure to weak fields (where cells are maintained in the unstable condition for longer) is potentially more damaging than relatively brief exposure to much stronger ones.
How calcium ions stabilize cell membranes
This loss of calcium is important because calcium ions bind to and stabilize the negatively charged membranes of living cells. They sit between the negatively charged components of the cell membrane and bind them together rather like mortar binds together the bricks in a wall. Loss of just some of these calcium ions destabilize the membrane and make it more inclined to leak, which can have serious metabolic consequences. Among these are the effects of membrane leakage on the neurons of the brain.
How membrane leakage affects neurons
Neurons transmit information between one another in the form of chemical neurotransmitters that pass across the synapses where they make contact. However, the release of these is normally triggered by a brief pulse of calcium entering the cell. If the membrane is leaky due to electromagnetic exposure, it will already have a high internal calcium concentration as calcium leaks in from the much higher concentration outside. The effect of this is to put the cells into hair-trigger mode so that they are more likely to release neurotransmitters and the brain as a whole may become hyperactive (Beason and Semm 2002; Krey and Dolmetsch 2007, Volkow et al. 2011). This may not be a good thing since the brain may become overloaded leading to a loss of concentration and what we now call attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).
How does this impact on autism?
Before and just after its birth, a child’s brain is essentially a blank canvas, and it goes through an intense period of learning to become aware of the significance of all of its new sensory inputs, e.g. to recognise its mother’s face, her expressions and eventually other people and their relationship to him/her (Hawley & Gunner 2000). During this process, the neurons in the brain make countless new connections, the patterns of which store what the child has learnt. However, after a matter of months, connections that are rarely used are pruned automatically (Huttenlocher & Dabholkar 1997) so that those that remain are hard-wired into the child’s psyche. The production of too many and often spurious signals due to electromagnetic exposure during this period will generate frequent random connections, which will also not be pruned, even though they may not make sense. It may be significant that autistic children tend to have slightly larger heads, possibly to accommodate unpruned neurons (Hill & Frith 2003).
Because the pruning process in electromagnetically-exposed children may be more random, it could leave the child with a defective hard-wired mind-set for social interactions, which may then contribute to the various autistic spectrum disorders. These children are not necessarily unintelligent; they may even have more brain cells than the rest of us and some may actually be savants. They may just be held back from having a normal life by a deficiency in the dedicated hard-wired neural networks needed for efficient communication.
Autism and the economy
The incidence of autism has increased 60-fold, in parallel with the increase in electromagnetic pollution over the last thirty years. The chance of having an autistic child may now be as high as one in fifty. Apart from the personal tragedies for the affected children and their families, autism is of enormous economic importance. In the UK alone, the annual cost to the Nation in care and lost production exceeds the annual tax revenue from the entire mobile phone industry, which is about 20billion UK pounds. http://www2.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/news/archives/2009/05/MartinKnappAutism.aspx In theory the Government could close down the entire mobile phone industry and actually show a profit!
There are ways in which the modulation of the signal can be changed to avoid this, but in the meantime, the compulsory introduction of smart meters can only contribute further to autism on a grand scale. This will be a further burden on the economy and increase the National deficit. This will far outweigh any possible advantages from the use of these meters.
There is also a risk of legal complications for the utility companies. If it can be shown that that the consumer has taken reasonable precautions to minimise their microwave exposure by eliminating WiFi, cordless phones and wireless baby monitors from their house, the utility company could be held legally responsible for any autistic children that they may have.
In the UK, the lifetime cost of caring for an autistic child is in the region of one million pounds. It would be reasonable to claim compensation for this amount. In the United States, it may also be possible to claim punitive damages if it can be shown that the utility company knew of this risk when they installed or refused to remove a smart meter when requested.
Dr Andrew Goldsworthy
Lecturer in Biology (retired)
Imperial College London
Amaral DG, Schumann CM, Nordahl CW (2008), Neuroanatomy of Autism, Trends in Neurosciences 31: 137-145
Bawin SM, Kaczmarek KL, Adey WR (1975), Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sci 247: 74-81
Beason RC, Semm P (2002), Responses of neurons to an amplitude modulated microwave stimulus. Neuroscience Letters 333: 175-178
Blackman CF (1990), ELF effects on calcium homeostasis. In: Wilson BW, Stevens RG, Anderson LE (eds) Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields: the Question of Cancer. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio, pp 189-208
Blackman CF, Benane SG, Kinney LS, House DE, Joines WT (1982), Effects of ELF fields on calcium-ion efflux from brain tissue in vitro. Radiation Research 92: 510-520
Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H (2005). Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutation Research 583: 178-183
Goldsworthy A (2010) , Witness Statement, http://mcs-america.org/june2010pg910111213141516.pdf
Hardell L, Carlberg M (2009), Mobile phones, cordless phones and the risk for brain tumours. Int J Oncology 35: 5-17 DOI: 10.3892/ijo_00000307
Hawley T, Gunner M (2000), How early experiences affect brain development. http://tinyurl.com/5u23ae
Hill EL, Frith U (2003), Understanding autism: insights from mind and brain. Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 358 281-289
Huttenlocher PR, Dabholkar AS (1997) Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. J Comparative Neurology 387 167-178
Krey JF, Dolmetsch RE (2007) Molecular mechanisms of autism: a possible role for Ca2+ signaling. Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 17: 112-119
Volkow ND, Tomasi D, Wang G, Vaska P, Fowler JS, Telang F, Alexoff D, Logan J, Wong C (2011), Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism. JAMA. 305 (8):808-813. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.186
Aloe + Bioflavonoid ( Pectin )
Aloe vera in dermatology- a brief review.
Feily A, Namazi MR.
Source–Department of Dermatology, Jondishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran. [email protected]
Abstract—Aloe vera Linne or aloe barbadensis Miller is a succulent from the Aloe family (400 different species), a tropical plant which is easily grown in hot and dry climates and widely distributed in Asia, Africa and other tropical areas. The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize all dermatology-oriented in vitro and in vivo experiments and clinical trials on aloe vera preparations. Extensive literature search were carried out to identify all in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials on the subject. Data were extracted from these in a predefined standardized manner. Forty studies were located. The results suggest that oral administration of aloe vera in mice is effective on wound healing, can decrease the number and size of papillomas and reduce the incidence of tumors and leishmania parasitemia by >90% in the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective prevention for radiation-induced injuries and has no sunburn or suntan protection. It can be effective for genital herpes, psoriasis, human papilloma virus, seborrheic dermatitis, aphthous stomatitis, xerosis, lichen planus, frostbite, burn, wound healing and inflammation. It can also be used as a biological vehicle andan anti-microbial and antifungal agent and also as a candidate for photodynamic therapy of some kinds of cancer. Even though there are some promising results with the use of aloe vera for diverse dermatologic conditions, clinical effectiveness of oral and topical aloe vera is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as yet.
PARSLEY, THE NEW PREDNISONE?
Parsley has been used for years as a folk remedy for water retention, coughs, allergy, autoimmune, and chronic inflammatory disorders. Although it is one of the most potent disease-fighting plants little is known about how parsley works its magic….that is, until now. Recently, scientists set out to examine just one of the many wonders of parsley, its immune effects, in rigorous scientific detail. They looked at how parsley oil interacts with T-cells and B-cells (both types of white blood cells) and macrophages (cells that engulf and eliminate other cells). Conclusion: parsley oil acted in a similar way to drugs that suppress the immune system, like prednisone, but without the harmful side effects. As if that weren’t enough, other studies have shown that parsley has antitumor, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties.
Karimi MH et al. “Parsley and immunomodulation.” Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012 May;8(4):295-7. http://www.expert-reviews.com/doi/pdf/10.1586/eci.12.12
It is believed that parsley is one of the world’s seven most potent disease-fighting spices . Although parsley has been used to treat allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, the mechanism underlying its beneficial effects in these immune-mediated diseases have been rarely investigated. Of the various therapeutically beneficial aspects of parsley, we decided to examine the immunomodulatory effects of this plant.
Throughout history, herbs have been utilized as an important constituent of foods, industry and folk medicine. One of the widely used vegetal species in various nations’ medicine is parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which has remedial effects as a powerful diuretic agent [1,2], an abortifacient [3–5] and an expectorant [6,7]. Parsley is a native herb of the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Algeria and Tunisia), which is in the Apiaceae family, and is a species of Petroselinum . It is believed that parsley is one of the world’s seven most potent disease-fighting spices . Although parsley has been used to treat allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, the mechanism underlying its beneficial effects in these immune-mediated diseases have been rarely investigated. Of the various therapeutically beneficial aspects of parsley, we decided to examine the immunomodulatory effects of this plant. In our study, the effects of parsley essential oil on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated splenocytes (T cells) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated B cells, as the main effector cells in adaptive immune system, was examined. In addition, the suppressive activity of different concentrations (0.01–100 μg/ml) of parsley essential oil on macrophages and LPS-stimulated macrophages for evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) was studied . The methyl tetrazolium method was performed to survey the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes as well as the viability of pretreated macrophages . NO production of both macrophage groups was determined in the Griess reaction . Parsley essential oil suppressed the proliferation of PHA-stimulated splenocytes at all applied concentrations. Similarly, it had a suppressive effect on the unstimulated and LPS-stimulated splenocytes, but only at high concentrations (10 and 100 μg/ml).NO production by unstimulated and stimulated macrophages was reduced by parsley essential oil; although, in all concentrations, unstimulated ones produced lower amounts of NO compared to the control group. These results can propose the suppressive effect of parsley essential oil on macrophages, as the major cells involved in the innate immune system .–The use of immunosuppressive drugs to control unwanted immune responses such as allergies, autoimmune disease and transplant rejection has grown over the past few years. The disadvantages and side effects of any immunosuppressive treatment are a significant and growing anxiety . Some serious side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, induction of diabetes, hypertension and neurotoxicity have been stated for various immunosuppressive drugs [10,11]. Thus, healthier and lower risk therapeutics are required. In this regard, more attention has been recently made on natural products. For example, the immunosuppressive activity of various herbal plants and ingredients including Achillea talagonica,  Plantago ovata , Boerhaavia diffusa ,Stachys obtsicrena , Pollen Typhae  and Silymarin  has been explored. Parsley has also been shown to possess other biological activities than these described here. Several studies have suggested anticancer potential of parsley. By means of ascorbic acid‑induced lipid peroxidation, the antilipoperoxidant activity of parsley extracts has been shown [10,17,18]. The antioxidant activity of parsley essential oil has been confirmed in other investigations. Wong et al. indicated that the phenolic compounds of parsley were responsible for its antibacterial and antioxidant activity . Zhang and his coworkers demonstrated the antioxidant activity of this herb in terms of b-carotene bleaching capacity and free radical scavenging activity . This concept was then supported by further studies . Parsley possesses several flavonoids such as apiin and luteolin, and its essential oil contains apiol and myristicin. These components are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of parsley [17,21]. Kandaswami et al. indicated the direct and indirect effects of flavonoids on tumor cells. Their studies showed that the hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of the flavons and flavonols, such as luteolin and quercetin, seemed to affect their angionesis and anticancer activity, especially the inhibition of protein kinase activity and antiproliferation . Robak and his coworkers believe that flavonoids are the superoxide anion scavengers of the media and this effect can also lead to their anti-inflammatory effects . Daly et al. observed bioactive phytochemicals, including carotenoids, in parsley. Carotenoids were shown to be associated with a low risk of several human chronic disorders including age-related macular degeneration and certain cancers. Matching the wide use of this vegetal species as a diuretic in folk medicine, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of parsley were demonstrated in studies by Kreydiyyeh and Usta, and de Campos et al. [1,2]. Further studies indicated more biological effects of parsley plants, such as provitamine A activity, and influencing the cell signaling pathways [22,23]. In summary, parsley is a plant with various biological activities. With respect to its immunomodulatory effects, we found that its inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated splenocytes might be due to the production of cytokines such as IFN-g and IL-2, which are vital for T-cell proliferation or it may influence the signaling pathways. Our results indicated that parsley essential oil can modulate the activity of macrophages without exerting cytotoxic effect. The immunomodulatory effect of parsley essential oil and its modulatory effects on NO production and function of macrophages may identify it as a useful natural candidate to treat some autoimmune and allergic diseases; however, its further application needs more investigation.
1 Kreydiyyeh SI, Usta J. Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79, 353–357 (2002).
2 de Campos KE, Balbi APC, De Freitas Alves MJQ. Diuretic and hypotensive activity of aqueous extract of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) in rats. Braz. J. Pharmacog. 19(1A), 41–45 (2009).
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5 Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler’s Herbs of Choice. The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals. Haworth Herbal Press, NY, USA, 92 (1999).
6 Daly T, Jiwan MA, O’Brein M, Aherne SA. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitrodigestion model. Plant. Foods Hum. Nutrit. 65(2), 164–169 (2010).
7 Zhang H, Chen F, Wang X, Yao HY. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents. Food Res. Int. 39(8), 833–839 (2006).
8 Lopez MG, Sanchez-Mendoza IR, Ochoa-Alejo N. Compartive study of volatile components and fatty acids of plants and in-vitro cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill] nym ex hill). J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 3292–3296 (1999).
9 Yousofi A, Daneshmandi S, Soleimani N, Bagheri K, Karimi MH. Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 34(2), 303–308 (2012).
10 Vial T, Descotes J. Immunosuppressive drugs and cancer. Toxicology 185(3), 229–240 (2003).
11 Qin F, Sun HX. Immunosuppressive activity of pollen typhae ethanol extract on the immune responses in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 102, 424–429 (2005).
12 Rezaeipoor R, Saeidnia S, Kamalinejad M. Immunosuppressive activity of Achillea talagonica on humoral immune responses in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 65, 273–276 (1999).
13 Rezaeipoor R, Saeidnia S, Kamalinejad M. The effect of Plantago ovata on humoral immune responses in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 72, 283–286 (2000).
14 Mehrotra S, Mishra KP, Maurya R, Srimal RC, Singh VK. Immunomodulation by ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots. Int. Immunopharmacol.2, 987–996 (2002).
15 Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K. Immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects of Stachys obtusicrena on proliferative lymphocytes.Med. Sci. Monit. 13(6), BR145–BR150 (2007).
16 Gharagozloo M, Velardi E, Bruscoli S et al. Silymarin suppress CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation: effects on NF-kB activity and IL-2 production.Pharmacol. Res. 61(5), 405–409 (2010).
17 Mimica-Dukić N, Popović M. Apiaceae species. A promising sources of pharmacologically active compounds I: Petrosellinum crispum, Apium greveolensand Pastinaca sativa. In: Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Govil JN, Singh VK (Eds). Studium Press LLC, TX, USA (2007).
18 Fejes S, Blázovics A, Lemberkovics E, Petri G, Szöke E, Kéry A. Free radical scavenging and membrane protective effects of methanol extracts fromAnthriscus cerefolium L. (Hoffm.) and Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill. Phytother. Res. 14(5), 362–365 (2000).
19 Wong PYY, Kitts DD. Studies on the dual antioxidant and anti bacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts. Food Chem. 97, 505–515 (2006).
20 Kolarovic J, Popovic M, Zlinská J, Trivic S, Vojnovic M. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin. Molecules 15, 6193–6204 (2010).
21 Lombaert GA, Siemens KH, Pellaers P, Mankotia M, Ng W. Furanocoumarins in celery and parsnips: method and multiyear Canadian survey. J. AOAC Int. 84, 1135–1143 (2001).
22 Kandaswami C, Lee LT, Lee PP et al. The antitumor activities of flavonoids. In Vivo 19(5), 895–909 (2005).
23 Robak J, Rys Z, Gryglewski J. Flavonoids are scavengers of super oxide anions. Biochem. Pharm. 37, 837–841 (1998)